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The Development, Validity and Applicability to Practice of Pharmacy-related Competency Frameworks: A Systematic Review

Udoh, A; Bruno-Tomé, A; Ernawati, DK; Galbraith, K; Bates, I; (2021) The Development, Validity and Applicability to Practice of Pharmacy-related Competency Frameworks: A Systematic Review. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 10.1016/j.sapharm.2021.02.014.

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Abstract

Background: Global reforms in the education of health workers has culminated in the implementation of competency-based education and training (CBET). In line with the CBET model, competency frameworks are now commonplace in the health professions. In pharmacy, these frameworks are used to regulate career entry, benchmark standards of practice and facilitate expertise development. Objective: This systematic review assessed the development, validity and applicability to practice of pharmacy-related competency frameworks. Method: PubMed/Medline, CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, Scopus and PsycINFO electronic databases were searched to identify relevant literature. Additional searching included Google Scholar, electronic sources of grey literature, and the Member Organisation websites of the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP). The findings of this review were synthesised and reported narratively. The review protocol is registered on PROSPERO with reference number CRD42018096580. Results: In total, 53 pharmacy-related frameworks were identified. The majority (n=39, 74%) were from high income countries in Europe and the Western Pacific region, with only three each from countries in South East Asia (SEA) and Africa. The identified frameworks were developed through a variety of methods that included expert group consultation used alone, or in combination with a literature review, job/role evaluation, or needs assessment. Profession wide surveys and consensus via a nominal group, Delphi, or modified Delphi technique were the primary methods used in framework validation. The competencies in the respective frameworks were generally ranked relevant to practice, thereby confirming validity and applicability. However, variations in competency-related terminologies and descriptors were observed. Disparities on perception of relevance also existed in relation to area of practice, length of experience, and level of competence. For example, pharmaceutical care competencies were typically ranked high in relevance in the frameworks, compared to others such as the research-related competencies. Conclusion: The validity and applicability to practice of pharmacy-related frameworks highlights their importance in competency-based education and training (CBET). However, the observed disparities in framework terminologies and development methods suggest the need for harmonisation.

Type: Article
Title: The Development, Validity and Applicability to Practice of Pharmacy-related Competency Frameworks: A Systematic Review
DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2021.02.014
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2021.02.014
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Competency-based education, competency frameworks, health professions, professional development, pharmacy
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy > Practice and Policy
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10122212
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