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SP-A and SP-D: Dual Functioning Immune Molecules With Antiviral and Immunomodulatory Properties

Watson, A; Madsen, J; Clark, HW; (2021) SP-A and SP-D: Dual Functioning Immune Molecules With Antiviral and Immunomodulatory Properties. Frontiers in Immunology , 11 , Article 622598. 10.3389/fimmu.2020.622598. Green open access

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Abstract

Surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and D (SP-D) are soluble innate immune molecules which maintain lung homeostasis through their dual roles as anti-infectious and immunomodulatory agents. SP-A and SP-D bind numerous viruses including influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), enhancing their clearance from mucosal points of entry and modulating the inflammatory response. They also have diverse roles in mediating innate and adaptive cell functions and in clearing apoptotic cells, allergens and other noxious particles. Here, we review how the properties of these first line defense molecules modulate inflammatory responses, as well as host-mediated immunopathology in response to viral infections. Since SP-A and SP-D are known to offer protection from viral and other infections, if their levels are decreased in some disease states as they are in severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), this may confer an increased risk of viral infection and exacerbations of disease. Recombinant molecules of SP-A and SP-D could be useful in both blocking respiratory viral infection while also modulating the immune system to prevent excessive inflammatory responses seen in, for example, RSV or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Recombinant SP-A and SP-D could have therapeutic potential in neutralizing both current and future strains of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus as well as modulating the inflammation-mediated pathology associated with COVID-19. A recombinant fragment of human (rfh)SP-D has recently been shown to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. Further work investigating the potential therapeutic role of SP-A and SP-D in COVID-19 and other infectious and inflammatory diseases is indicated.

Type: Article
Title: SP-A and SP-D: Dual Functioning Immune Molecules With Antiviral and Immunomodulatory Properties
Location: Switzerland
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.622598
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.622598
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2021 Watson, Madsen and Clark. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Keywords: surfactant protein A, surfactant protein D, recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rfhSP-D), inflammation, immunoregulation, coronavirus disease 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (2019-nCoV), therapeutic
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL EGA Institute for Womens Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL EGA Institute for Womens Health > Neonatology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10122075
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