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3D Engineered Peripheral Nerve: Towards A New Era of Patient-Specific Nerve Repair Solutions

Selim, O; Lakhani, S; Midha, S; Mosahebi, A; Kalaskar, DM; (2021) 3D Engineered Peripheral Nerve: Towards A New Era of Patient-Specific Nerve Repair Solutions. Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews 10.1089/ten.TEB.2020.0355. (In press).

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Abstract

Reconstruction of peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) with substance loss remains challenging because of limited treatment solutions and unsatisfactory patient outcomes. Currently, nerve autografting is the first-line management choice for bridging critical-sized nerve defects. The procedure, however, is often complicated by donor site morbidity and paucity of nerve tissue, raising a quest for better alternatives. The application of other treatment surrogates, such as nerve guides remains questionable, and inefficient in irreducible nerve gaps. More importantly, these strategies lack customization for personalized patient therapy, which is a significant drawback of these nerve repair options. This negatively impacts the fascicle-to-fascicle regeneration process, critical to restoring the physiological axonal pathway of the disrupted nerve. Recently, the use of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies has offered major advancements to the bioengineering solutions for PNI therapy. These techniques aim to reinstate the native nerve fascicle pathway using biomimetic approaches, thereby augmenting end-organ innervation. AM-based approaches, such as 3D bioprinting, are capable of biofabricating 3D engineered nerve graft scaffolds in a patient-specific manner with high precision. Moreover, realistic in vitro models of peripheral nerve tissues that represent the physiologically and functionally relevant environment of human organs could also be developed. However, the technology is still nascent and faces major translational hurdles. In this review, we spotlighted the clinical burden of PNIs and most up-to-date treatment to address nerve gaps. Next, a summarized illustration of the nerve ultrastructure that guides research solutions is discussed. This is followed by a contrast of the existing bioengineering strategies used to repair peripheral nerve discontinuities. In addition, we elaborated on the most recent advances in 3D printing (3DP) and biofabrication applications in peripheral nerve modeling and engineering. Finally, the major challenges that limit the evolution of the field along with their possible solutions are also critically analyzed.

Type: Article
Title: 3D Engineered Peripheral Nerve: Towards A New Era of Patient-Specific Nerve Repair Solutions
Location: United States
DOI: 10.1089/ten.TEB.2020.0355
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1089/ten.TEB.2020.0355
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: peripheral nerve tissue engineering, nerve biofabrication, nerve gap, nerve CAD model
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci > Department of Ortho and MSK Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci > Department of Surgical Biotechnology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10122003
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