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Symptomatology of carbamazepine- and oxcarbazepine-induced hyponatremia in people with epilepsy

Berghuis, B; Hulst, J; Sonsma, A; McCormack, M; de Haan, G-J; Sander, JW; Lindhout, D; (2021) Symptomatology of carbamazepine- and oxcarbazepine-induced hyponatremia in people with epilepsy. Epilepsia 10.1111/epi.16828. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether adverse effects experienced by people taking carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine could be attributed to carbamazepine- or oxcarbazepine-induced hyponatremia (COIH). METHODS: We performed an observational study, collecting data between 2017 and 2019 on serum sodium levels and adverse effects retrospectively in people with epilepsy while receiving treatment with either carbamazepine (CBZ) or oxcarbazepine (OXC). We defined hyponatremia as sodium level ≤134 mEq/L and severe hyponatremia as sodium level ≤128 mEq/L. Adverse effects experienced were compared between groups of individuals with and without hyponatremia. RESULTS: A total of 1370 people using CBZ or OXC were identified, of whom 410 had at least one episode of hyponatremia. We checked for symptoms related to the use of CBZ and OXC in 710 people (410 with and 300 without hyponatremia) and found relevant information in 688. Adverse effects occurred in 65% of people with hyponatremia compared to 21% with normal sodium levels (odds ratio [OR] 7.5, P ≤ .001) and in 83% of people with severe hyponatremia compared to 55% in those with mild hyponatremia (P ≤ .001). Significant predictors of adverse effects were the drug (OXC vs CBZ), and the number of concomitant anti-seizure medications. Dizziness (28% vs 6%), tiredness (22% vs 7%), instability (19% vs 3%), and diplopia (16% vs 4%) were reported more often in the hyponatremia group than in patients with normal levels. SIGNIFICANCE: People with COIH had a 7-fold increased risk of developing adverse effects during treatment. Clinicians should consider ascertainment of sodium levels in patients taking CBZ and OXC and act upon findings.

Type: Article
Title: Symptomatology of carbamazepine- and oxcarbazepine-induced hyponatremia in people with epilepsy
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1111/epi.16828
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1111/epi.16828
Language: English
Additional information: This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial- NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. See: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Keywords: adverse effects, anti-seizure medication, drug treatment, sodium levels
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10121889
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