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Characteristics of intracerebral haemorrhage associated with COVID-19: a systematic review and pooled analysis of individual patient and aggregate data

Beyrouti, R; Best, JG; Chandratheva, A; Perry, RJ; Werring, DJ; (2021) Characteristics of intracerebral haemorrhage associated with COVID-19: a systematic review and pooled analysis of individual patient and aggregate data. Journal of Neurology 10.1007/s00415-021-10425-9. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Background and purpose: There are very few studies of the characteristics and causes of ICH in COVID-19, yet such data are essential to guide clinicians in clinical management, including challenging anticoagulation decisions. We aimed to describe the characteristics of spontaneous symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) associated with COVID-19. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Central Database for data from patients with SARS-CoV-2 detected prior to or within 7 days after symptomatic ICH. We did a pooled analysis of individual patient data, then combined data from this pooled analysis with aggregate-level data. Results: We included data from 139 patients (98 with individual data and 41 with aggregate-level data). In our pooled individual data analysis, the median age (IQR) was 60 (53–67) years and 64% (95% CI 54–73.7%) were male; 79% (95% CI 70.0–86.9%) had critically severe COVID-19. The pooled prevalence of lobar ICH was 67% (95% CI 56.3–76.0%), and of multifocal ICH was 36% (95% CI 26.4–47.0%). 71% (95% CI 61.0–80.4%) of patients were treated with anticoagulation (58% (95% CI 48–67.8%) therapeutic). The median NIHSS was 28 (IQR 15–28); mortality was 54% (95% CI 43.7–64.2%). Our combined analysis of individual and aggregate data showed similar findings. The pooled incidence of ICH across 12 cohort studies of inpatients with COVID-19 (n = 63,390) was 0.38% (95% CI 0.22–0.58%). Conclusions: Our data suggest that ICH associated with COVID-19 has different characteristics compared to ICH not associated with COVID-19, including frequent lobar location and multifocality, a high rate of anticoagulation, and high mortality. These observations suggest different underlying mechanisms of ICH in COVID-19 with potential implications for clinical treatment and trials.

Type: Article
Title: Characteristics of intracerebral haemorrhage associated with COVID-19: a systematic review and pooled analysis of individual patient and aggregate data
Location: Germany
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1007/s00415-021-10425-9
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10425-9
Language: English
Additional information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Keywords: Anticoagulation, COVID-19, Intracerebral haemorrhage, Stroke
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Brain Repair and Rehabilitation
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10121676
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