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Density and morphology: from the building scale to the city scale

Godoy-Shimizu, D; Steadman, P; Evans, S; (2021) Density and morphology: from the building scale to the city scale. Buildings & Cities , 2 (1) pp. 92-113. 10.5334/bc.83. Green open access

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Abstract

The density of the domestic building stock of London is explored, moving from the scale of individual house and blocks of flats, through larger geographical units, to complete boroughs. The description of the stock is highly detailed and is made using the 3DStock method, which derives building geometry from digital maps and LiDAR (laser measurements from overflying aircraft). This means that accurate estimates of floor areas can be made and used to measure densities as Floor Space Index (FSI) values. Ground coverage or Ground Space Index (GSI) values are calculated from building footprints and land boundaries. The Spacemate tool, devised by Berghauser Pont and Haupt, is used to plot the types and ages of dwellings in terms of FSI, GSI and numbers of storeys. Figures for actual annual gas and electricity consumption are attached to each dwelling. Analysis shows that, in general, energy-use intensities—and especially the intensity of gas use for heating—decrease with increasing density, and with the transition between house types, from detached, to semi-detached, to terraces, to (low-rise) flats.

Type: Article
Title: Density and morphology: from the building scale to the city scale
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.5334/bc.83
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.5334/bc.83
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/4.0/.
Keywords: 3DStock, building stock, buildings, energy use, energyuse intensity, morphology, Spacemate, urban density
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of the Built Environment
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of the Built Environment > Bartlett School Env, Energy and Resources
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10120757
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