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Imaging physiological brain activity and epilepsy with Electrical Impedance Tomography

Witkowska-Wrobel, Anna Magdalena; (2021) Imaging physiological brain activity and epilepsy with Electrical Impedance Tomography. Doctoral thesis (Ph.D), UCL (University College London).

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Abstract

Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) allows reconstructing conductivity changes into images. EIT detects fast impedance changes occurring over milliseconds, due to ion channel opening, and slow impedance changes, appearing in seconds, due to cell swelling/increased blood flow. The purpose of this work was to examine the feasibility of using EIT for imaging a gyrencephalic brain with implanted depth electrodes during seizures. Chapter 1 summarises the principles of EIT. In Chapter 2, it is investigated whether recent technical improvements could enable EIT to image slow impedance changes upon visual stimulation non-invasively. This was unsuccessful so the remaining studies were undertaken on intracranial recordings. Chapter 3 presents a computer modelling study using data from patients, for whom the detection of simulated seizure-onset perturbations for both, fast and slow impedance changes, were improved with EIT compared to stereotactic electroencephalography (SEEG) detection or EEG inverse-source modelling. Chapter 4 describes the development of a portable EIT system that could be used on patients. The system does not require averaging and post-hoc signal processing to remove switching artefacts, which was the case previously. Chapter 5 describes the use of the optimised method in chemically-induced focal epilepsy in anaesthetised pigs implanted with depth electrodes. This shows for the first time EIT was capable of producing reproducible images of the onset and spread of seizure-related slow impedance changes in real-time. Chapter 6 presents a study on imaging ictal/interictal-related fast impedance changes. The feasibility of reconstructing ictal-related impedance changes is demonstrated for one pig and interictal-related impedance changes were recorded for the first time in humans. Chapter 7 summarises all work and future directions. Overall, this work suggests EIT in combination with SEEG has a potential to improve the diagnostic yield in epilepsy and demonstrates EIT can be performed safely and ethically creating a foundation for further clinical trials.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Qualification: Ph.D
Title: Imaging physiological brain activity and epilepsy with Electrical Impedance Tomography
Event: UCL
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © The Author 2021. Original content in this thesis is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) Licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Any third-party copyright material present remains the property of its respective owner(s) and is licensed under its existing terms. Access may initially be restricted at the author’s request.
Keywords: epilepsy, EIT, Seizure imaging, animal seizure model, brain imaging, intracranial EEG
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Med Phys and Biomedical Eng
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10120324
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