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Appetite disinhibition rather than hunger explains genetic effects on adult BMI trajectory

Brunner, EJ; Maruyama, K; Shipley, M; Cable, N; Iso, H; Hiyoshi, A; Stallone, D; ... Llewellyn, C; + view all (2021) Appetite disinhibition rather than hunger explains genetic effects on adult BMI trajectory. International Journal of Obesity 10.1038/s41366-020-00735-9. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The mediating role of eating behaviors in genetic susceptibility to weight gain during mid-adult life is not fully understood. This longitudinal study aims to help us understand contributions of genetic susceptibility and appetite to weight gain. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We followed the body-mass index (BMI) trajectories of 2464 adults from 45 to 65 years of age by measuring weight and height on four occasions at 5-year intervals. Genetic risk of obesity (gene risk score: GRS) was ascertained, comprising 92 BMI-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms and split at a median (=high and low risk). At the baseline, the Eating Inventory was used to assess appetite-related traits of 'disinhibition', indicative of opportunistic eating or overeating and 'hunger' which is susceptibility to/ability to cope with the sensation of hunger. Roles of the GRS and two appetite-related scores for BMI trajectories were examined using a mixed model adjusted for the cohort effect and sex. RESULTS: Disinhibition was associated with higher BMI (β = 2.96; 95% CI: 2.66-3.25 kg/m2), and accounted for 34% of the genetically-linked BMI difference at age 45. Hunger was also associated with higher BMI (β = 1.20; 0.82-1.59 kg/m2) during mid-life and slightly steeper weight gain, but did not attenuate the effect of disinhibition. CONCLUSIONS: Appetite disinhibition is most likely to be a defining characteristic of genetic susceptibility to obesity. High levels of appetite disinhibition, rather than hunger, may underlie genetic vulnerability to obesogenic environments in two-thirds of the population of European ancestry.

Type: Article
Title: Appetite disinhibition rather than hunger explains genetic effects on adult BMI trajectory
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1038/s41366-020-00735-9
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-020-00735-9
Language: English
Additional information: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Keywords: Epidemiology, Lifestyle modification
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Behavioural Science and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Epidemiology and Public Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10119381
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