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Development and validation of prediction model to estimate 10-year risk of all-cause mortality using modern statistical learning methods: a large population-based cohort study and external validation

Ajnakina, O; Agbedjro, D; McCammon, R; Faul, J; Murray, RM; Stahl, D; Steptoe, A; (2021) Development and validation of prediction model to estimate 10-year risk of all-cause mortality using modern statistical learning methods: a large population-based cohort study and external validation. BMC Medical Research Methodology , 21 (1) , Article 8. 10.1186/s12874-020-01204-7. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: In increasingly ageing populations, there is an emergent need to develop a robust prediction model for estimating an individual absolute risk for all-cause mortality, so that relevant assessments and interventions can be targeted appropriately. The objective of the study was to derive, evaluate and validate (internally and externally) a risk prediction model allowing rapid estimations of an absolute risk of all-cause mortality in the following 10 years. METHODS: For the model development, data came from English Longitudinal Study of Ageing study, which comprised 9154 population-representative individuals aged 50-75 years, 1240 (13.5%) of whom died during the 10-year follow-up. Internal validation was carried out using Harrell's optimism-correction procedure; external validation was carried out using Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of adults aged ≥50 years residing in the United States. Cox proportional hazards model with regularisation by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, where optimisation parameters were chosen based on repeated cross-validation, was employed for variable selection and model fitting. Measures of calibration, discrimination, sensitivity and specificity were determined in the development and validation cohorts. RESULTS: The model selected 13 prognostic factors of all-cause mortality encompassing information on demographic characteristics, health comorbidity, lifestyle and cognitive functioning. The internally validated model had good discriminatory ability (c-index=0.74), specificity (72.5%) and sensitivity (73.0%). Following external validation, the model's prediction accuracy remained within a clinically acceptable range (c-index=0.69, calibration slope β=0.80, specificity=71.5% and sensitivity=70.6%). The main limitation of our model is twofold: 1) it may not be applicable to nursing home and other institutional populations, and 2) it was developed and validated in the cohorts with predominately white ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: A new prediction model that quantifies absolute risk of all-cause mortality in the following 10-years in the general population has been developed and externally validated. It has good prediction accuracy and is based on variables that are available in a variety of care and research settings. This model can facilitate identification of high risk for all-cause mortality older adults for further assessment or interventions.

Type: Article
Title: Development and validation of prediction model to estimate 10-year risk of all-cause mortality using modern statistical learning methods: a large population-based cohort study and external validation
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s12874-020-01204-7
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01204-7
Language: English
Additional information: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Keywords: Absolute risk, Mortality, Population-based longitudinal study, Prognostic factors, Statistical learning, Survival
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Behavioural Science and Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10119276
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