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Spin-enhanced nanodiamond biosensing for ultrasensitive diagnostics

Miller, BS; Bezinge, L; Gliddon, HD; Huang, D; Dold, G; Gray, ER; Heaney, J; ... McKendry, RA; + view all (2020) Spin-enhanced nanodiamond biosensing for ultrasensitive diagnostics. Nature , 587 (7835) pp. 588-593. 10.1038/s41586-020-2917-1. Green open access

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Abstract

The quantum spin properties of nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond enable diverse applications in quantum computing and communications. However, fluorescent nanodiamonds also have attractive properties for in vitro biosensing, including brightness, low cost and selective manipulation of their emission. Nanoparticle-based biosensors are essential for the early detection of disease, but they often lack the required sensitivity. Here we investigate fluorescent nanodiamonds as an ultrasensitive label for in vitro diagnostics, using a microwave field to modulate emission intensity and frequency-domain analysis to separate the signal from background autofluorescence, which typically limits sensitivity. Focusing on the widely used, low-cost lateral flow format as an exemplar, we achieve a detection limit of 8.2 × 10−19 molar for a biotin–avidin model, 105 times more sensitive than that obtained using gold nanoparticles. Single-copy detection of HIV-1 RNA can be achieved with the addition of a 10-minute isothermal amplification step, and is further demonstrated using a clinical plasma sample with an extraction step. This ultrasensitive quantum diagnostics platform is applicable to numerous diagnostic test formats and diseases, and has the potential to transform early diagnosis of disease for the benefit of patients and populations.

Type: Article
Title: Spin-enhanced nanodiamond biosensing for ultrasensitive diagnostics
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2917-1
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2917-1
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Biomedical engineering, Biosensors, Diagnostic devices, Nanoparticles
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > London Centre for Nanotechnology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10119211
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