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Impact of multiple cardiovascular medications on mortality after an incidence of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack

Ma, T-T; Wong, I; Whittlesea, C; Man, K; Lau, W; Wang, Z; Brauer, R; ... Wei, L; + view all (2021) Impact of multiple cardiovascular medications on mortality after an incidence of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. BMC Medicine , 19 , Article 24. 10.1186/s12916-021-01900-1. Green open access

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Abstract

Background: To manage the risk factors and to improve clinical outcomes, patients with stroke commonly receive multiple cardiovascular medications. However, there is a lack of evidence on the optimum combination of medication therapy in the primary care setting after ischemic stroke. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of multiple cardiovascular medications on long-term survival after an incident stroke event (ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA)). Methods: This study consisted of 52,619 patients aged 45 and above with an incident stroke event between 2007 and 2016 in The Health Improvement Network database. We estimated the risk of all-cause mortality in patients with multiple cardiovascular medications versus monotherapy using a marginal structural model. Results: During an average follow-up of 3.6 years, there were 9230 deaths (7635 in multiple cardiovascular medication groups and 1595 in the monotherapy group). Compared with patients prescribed monotherapy only, the HRs of mortality were 0.82 (95% CI 0.75–0.89) for two medications, 0.65 (0.59–0.70) for three medications, 0.61 (0.56–0.67) for four medications, 0.60 (0.54–0.66) for five medications and 0.66 (0.59–0.74) for ≥ six medications. Patients with any four classes of antiplatelet agents (APAs), lipid-regulating medications (LRMs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-blockers, diuretics and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) had the lowest risk of mortality (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.46–0.57) versus any one class. The combination containing APAs, LRMs, ACEIs/ARBs and CCBs was associated with a 61% (95% CI 53–68%) lower risk of mortality compared with APAs alone. Conclusion: Our results suggested that combination therapy of four or five cardiovascular medications may be optimal to improve long-term survival after incident ischemic stroke or TIA. APAs, LRMs, ACEIs/ARBs and CCBs were the optimal constituents of combination therapy in the present study.

Type: Article
Title: Impact of multiple cardiovascular medications on mortality after an incidence of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s12916-021-01900-1
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-021-01900-1
Language: English
Additional information: This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy > Practice and Policy
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10119135
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