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Adaptation and preliminary psychometric properties of three self-stigma outcome measures for people living with dementia

Bhatt, J; Stoner, CR; Scior, K; Charlesworth, G; (2021) Adaptation and preliminary psychometric properties of three self-stigma outcome measures for people living with dementia. BMC Geriatrics , 21 (1) , Article 34. 10.1186/s12877-020-01983-0. Green open access

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Abstract

Background: A diagnosis of dementia presents individuals with both social and psychological challenges but research on self-stigma in dementia has been largely confined to qualitative approaches due to a lack of robust outcome measures that assess change. The Stigma Impact Scale (SIS) is the most commonly used measure of self-stigma in dementia but its suitability as a tool to assess change in a UK population is unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify, adapt and evaluate the acceptability and preliminary psychometric properties of self-stigma measures for people with dementia for use as measures of change. / Method: A 4-step sequential design of identifying, selecting, adapting and testing psychometric measures as follows: 1) identification of stigma outcome measures through reviewing anti-stigma intervention literature, 2) selection of candidate measures through quality assessment (Terwee criteria) and expert consultation, 3) adaptation for UK dementia population (Stewart and colleagues Modification Framework) 4) testing of adapted measures in people living with dementia (N=40) to establish acceptability and preliminary reproducibility (test retest), criterion (concurrent with SIS) and construct (negative convergence with Rosenberg self-esteem scale) validity. / Results: Seven measures were identified from the review, but most were poor quality (Terwee range: 0–4). Three measures were selected for modification: Stigma Stress Scale; Secrecy subscale of the Stigma Coping Orientation Scale; Disclosure Related Distress Scale. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were acceptable (.866≤α≤ .938; ICC .721–.774), except for the Stigma Stress Scale (α= .643) for which the component subscales (perceived harm, ability to cope) had stronger psychometric properties. Concurrent validity with the SIS was not established (r<.7) although there were significant correlations between total SIS and perceived harm (r=.587) and between internalized shame and secrecy (r=.488). Relationships with self-esteem were in the hypothesized direction for all scales and subscales indicating convergent validity. / Conclusion: Stigma scales from mental health are not readily adapted for use with people with dementia. However there is preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability and validity of measures of perceived harm, secrecy and stigma impact. Further conceptual and psychometric development is required.

Type: Article
Title: Adaptation and preliminary psychometric properties of three self-stigma outcome measures for people living with dementia
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s12877-020-01983-0
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-020-01983-0
Language: English
Additional information: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Keywords: Stigma, Alzheimer’s, Cognition, Outcomes, Reliability, Validity
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Div of Psychology and Lang Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Div of Psychology and Lang Sciences > Clinical, Edu and Hlth Psychology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10118845
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