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Glial regenerative cell types in the superficial cortex in cortical dysplasia subtypes

Liu, JYW; Reeves, C; van der Pijl, R; Thom, M; (2021) Glial regenerative cell types in the superficial cortex in cortical dysplasia subtypes. Epilepsy Research , 169 , Article 106529. 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2020.106529. Green open access

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Abstract

PURPOSE: Focal Cortical Dysplasias (FCD) are localized malformative brain lesions in epilepsy. FCD3a associated with hippocampal sclerosis, affects the superficial cortex and is presumed to have an 'acquired' rather than developmental origin. Precursor cells may arise outside neurogenic zones including cortical layer I. Our aim was to characterise subsets of glial progenitor cells in the superficial cortical layers, known to be involved in gliosis and gliogenesis and that could distinguish FCD3a from other subtypes. METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry we quantified the density of glial progenitor subsets in superficial cortex layers using markers against PAX6, GFAP, Olig2 and PDGFRβ and proliferation marker MCM2 in ten FCD3a cases compared to 18 other FCD types and 11 non-FCD controls. KEY FINDINGS: Glial progenitor cells types were present in the cortical layer I and II in all FCD groups. GFAP cells frequently expressed PAX6 and significantly higher GFAP/PAX6 than GFAP/MCM2 cell densities were identified in the FCD3a group (p < 0.05). Olig2 cell densities were significantly higher in FCD3b than FCD3a (p = 0.002) and significantly higher GFAP/MCM2 compared to PDGFRβ/MCM2 cell densities were identified in both FCD3b and FCD2 groups. There was no correlation between cell densities and the age of patients at surgery and between cortical regions. SIGNIFICANCE: Immature and proliferative glial populations across FCD variants reflect reactive cell types and differences may provide insight into underlying pathomechanisms. Higher PAX6 expression in astroglial cells in FCD3a may indicate a switch to astrocytic maturation and enhanced superficial gliosis. Higher Olig2 and GFAP/MCM2 densities in FCD3b may reflect margins of the tumour infiltration zone rather than true cortical dysplasia.

Type: Article
Title: Glial regenerative cell types in the superficial cortex in cortical dysplasia subtypes
Location: Netherlands
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2020.106529
Language: English
Additional information: This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: Cortical dysplasia, Cortical layer I II, Glial regeneration
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10118455
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