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The Writers, Readers, and Erasers in Redox Regulation of GAPDH.

Tossounian, M-A; Zhang, B; Gout, I; (2020) The Writers, Readers, and Erasers in Redox Regulation of GAPDH. Antioxidants , 9 (12) , Article 1288. 10.3390/antiox9121288. Green open access

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Abstract

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a key glycolytic enzyme, which is crucial for the breakdown of glucose to provide cellular energy. Over the past decade, GAPDH has been reported to be one of the most prominent cellular targets of post-translational modifications (PTMs), which divert GAPDH toward different non-glycolytic functions. Hence, it is termed a moonlighting protein. During metabolic and oxidative stress, GAPDH is a target of different oxidative PTMs (oxPTM), e.g., sulfenylation, S-thiolation, nitrosylation, and sulfhydration. These modifications alter the enzyme's conformation, subcellular localization, and regulatory interactions with downstream partners, which impact its glycolytic and non-glycolytic functions. In this review, we discuss the redox regulation of GAPDH by different redox writers, which introduce the oxPTM code on GAPDH to instruct a redox response; the GAPDH readers, which decipher the oxPTM code through regulatory interactions and coordinate cellular response via the formation of multi-enzyme signaling complexes; and the redox erasers, which are the reducing systems that regenerate the GAPDH catalytic activity. Human pathologies associated with the oxidation-induced dysregulation of GAPDH are also discussed, featuring the importance of the redox regulation of GAPDH in neurodegeneration and metabolic disorders.

Type: Article
Title: The Writers, Readers, and Erasers in Redox Regulation of GAPDH.
Location: Switzerland
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3390/antiox9121288
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9121288
Language: English
Additional information: This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: GAPDH, S-thiolation, metabolism, moonlighting protein, oxidative PTMs, redox regulation
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences > Structural and Molecular Biology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10118342
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