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Self-Abrading Servo Electrode Helmet for Electrical Impedance Tomography

Avery, J; Packham, B; Koo, H; Hanson, B; Holder, D; (2020) Self-Abrading Servo Electrode Helmet for Electrical Impedance Tomography. Sensors , 20 (24) , Article 7058. 10.3390/s20247058. Green open access

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Abstract

Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a medical imaging technique which has the potential to reduce time to treatment in acute stroke by rapidly differentiating between ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. The potential of these methods has been demonstrated in simulation and phantoms, it has not yet successfully translated to clinical studies, due to high sensitivity to errors in scalp electrode mislocation and poor electrode-skin contact. To overcome these limitations, a novel electrode helmet was designed, bearing 32 independently controlled self-abrading electrodes. The contact impedance was reduced through rotation on an abrasive electrode on the scalp using a combined impedance, rotation and position feedback loop. Potentiometers within each unit measure the electrode tip displacement within 0.1 mm from the rigid helmet body. Characterisation experiments on a large-scale test rig demonstrated that approximately 20 kPa applied pressure and 5 rotations was necessary to achieve the target 5 kΩ contact impedance at 20 Hz. This performance was then replicated in a simplified self-contained unit where spring loaded electrodes are rotated by servo motors. Finally, a 32-channel helmet and controller which sequentially minimised contact impedance and simultaneously located each electrode was built which reduced the electrode application and localisation time to less than five minutes. The results demonstrated the potential of this approach to rapidly apply electrodes in an acute setting, removing a significant barrier for imaging acute stroke with EIT.

Type: Article
Title: Self-Abrading Servo Electrode Helmet for Electrical Impedance Tomography
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3390/s20247058
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3390/s20247058
Language: English
Additional information: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: electrical impedance tomography; stroke; brain imaging; bioimpedance electrodes
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Mechanical Engineering
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Med Phys and Biomedical Eng
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10117743
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