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Management of severe hyperinflammation in the COVID-19 era: the role of the rheumatologist

Papadopoulou, C; Al Obaidi, M; Moraitis, E; Compeyrot-Lacassagne, S; Eleftheriou, D; Brogan, P; (2020) Management of severe hyperinflammation in the COVID-19 era: the role of the rheumatologist. Rheumatology 10.1093/rheumatology/keaa652. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were (i) to describe the clinical presentation, treatment and outcome of paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally related to Sars-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) in children; (ii) to propose a framework to guide multidisciplinary team (MDT) management; and (iii) to highlight the role of the paediatric rheumatologist in this context. METHODS: This study involved a retrospective case notes review of patients referred to a single specialist paediatric centre with suspected PIMS-TS, with a focus on clinical presentation, laboratory parameters, treatment, and outcome in the context of an MDT framework. RESULTS: Nineteen children of median age 9.1 years fulfilled the definition of PIMS-TS and were managed within an MDT framework: 5/19 were female; 14/19 were of Black, Asian or minority ethnicity; 9/19 also fulfilled diagnostic criteria for complete or incomplete Kawasaki disease (KD). Severe systemic inflammation, shock, and abdominal pain were ubiquitous. Treatment was stratified within an MDT framework and included CSs in all; i.v. immunoglobulin in all; anakinra in 4/19; infliximab in 1/19; and antiviral (aciclovir) in 4/19. CONCLUSIONS: We observed significant diagnostic equipoise using a current definition of PIMS-TS, overlapping with KD. Outside of clinical trials, an MDT approach is vital. The role of the paediatric rheumatologist is to consider differential diagnoses of hyperinflammation in the young, to advise on empiric immunomodulatory therapy, to set realistic therapeutic targets, to gauge therapeutic success, to oversee timely step-down of immunomodulation, and to contribute to the longer-term MDT follow-up of any late inflammatory sequelae.

Type: Article
Title: Management of severe hyperinflammation in the COVID-19 era: the role of the rheumatologist
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/keaa652
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keaa652
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, clinical framework, hyperinflammation, multidisciplinary team, paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10116354
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