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Sleep-disordered breathing and comorbidities: Role of the upper airway and craniofacial skeleton

Brennan, LC; Kirkham, FJ; Gavlak, JC; (2020) Sleep-disordered breathing and comorbidities: Role of the upper airway and craniofacial skeleton. Nature and Science of Sleep , 12 pp. 907-936. 10.2147/NSS.S146608. Green open access

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Abstract

Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which includes primary snoring through to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), may cause compromise of respiratory gas exchange during sleep, related to transient upper airway narrowing disrupting ventilation, and causing oxyhemoglobin desaturation and poor sleep quality. SDB is common in chronic disorders and has significant implications for health. With prevalence rates globally increas-ing, this condition is causing a substantial burden on health care costs. Certain populations, including people with sickle cell disease (SCD), exhibit a greater prevalence of OSAS. A review of the literature provides the available normal polysomnography and oximetry data for reference and documents the structural upper airway differences between those with and without OSAS, as well as between ethnicities and disease states. There may be differences in craniofacial development due to atypical growth trajectories or extramedullary hematopoiesis in anemias such as SCD. Studies involving MRI of the upper airway illustrated that OSAS populations tend to have a greater amount of lymphoid tissue, smaller airways, and smaller lower facial skeletons from measurements of the mandible and linear mental spine to clivus. Understanding the potential relationship between these anatomical landmarks and OSAS could help to stratify treatments, guiding choice towards those which most effectively resolve the obstruction. OSAS is relatively common in SCD populations, with hypoxia as a key manifestation, and sequelae including increased risk of stroke. Combatting any structural defects with appropriate interventions could reduce hypoxic exposure and consequently reduce the risk of comorbidities in those with SDB, warranting early treatment interventions.

Type: Article
Title: Sleep-disordered breathing and comorbidities: Role of the upper airway and craniofacial skeleton
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.2147/NSS.S146608
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S146608
Language: English
Additional information: This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.
Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea, sickle cell, polysomnography, desaturation, MRI, airway, adenoids
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Developmental Neurosciences Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10115852
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