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Risk Factors for Delirium and Cognitive Decline Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Greaves, D; Psaltis, PJ; Davis, DHJ; Ross, TJ; Ghezzi, ES; Lampit, A; Smith, AE; (2020) Risk Factors for Delirium and Cognitive Decline Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of the American Heart Association Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease , Article e017275. 10.1161/JAHA.120.017275. Green open access

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Abstract

Background: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is known to improve heart function and quality of life, while rates of surgery-related mortality are low. However, delirium and cognitive decline are common complications. We sought to identify preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative risk or protective factors associated with delirium and cognitive decline (across time) in patients undergoing CABG. Methods and Results: We conducted a systematic search of Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Cochrane (March 26, 2019) for peer-reviewed, English publications reporting post-CABG delirium or cognitive decline data, for at least one risk factor. Random-effects meta-analyses estimated pooled odds ratio for categorical data and mean difference or standardized mean difference for continuous data. Ninety-seven studies, comprising data from 60 479 patients who underwent CABG, were included. Moderate to large and statistically significant risk factors for delirium were as follows: (1) preoperative cognitive impairment, depression, stroke history, and higher European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) score, (2) intraoperative increase in intubation time, and (3) postoperative presence of arrythmia and increased days in the intensive care unit; higher preoperative cognitive performance was protective for delirium. Moderate to large and statistically significant risk factors for acute cognitive decline were as follows: (1) preoperative depression and older age, (2) intraoperative increase in intubation time, and (3) postoperative presence of delirium and increased days in the intensive care unit. Presence of depression preoperatively was a moderate risk factor for midterm (1-6 months) post-CABG cognitive decline. Conclusions: This meta-analysis identified several key risk factors for delirium and cognitive decline following CABG, most of which are nonmodifiable. Future research should target preoperative risk factors, such as depression or cognitive impairment, which are potentially modifiable. Registration URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prosp​ero/; Unique identifier: CRD42020149276.

Type: Article
Title: Risk Factors for Delirium and Cognitive Decline Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.120.017275
Language: English
Additional information: © 2020 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. JAHA is available at: www.ahajournals.org/journal/jaha
Keywords: cognitive decline, coronary artery bypass grafting, delirium, meta‐analysis
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Population Science and Experimental Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Population Science and Experimental Medicine > MRC Unit for Lifelong Hlth and Ageing
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10115174
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