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Confirming the Diagnosis of Amyloidosis

Wisniowski, B; Wechalekar, A; (2020) Confirming the Diagnosis of Amyloidosis. Acta Haematologica , 143 (4) pp. 312-321. 10.1159/000508022. Green open access

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Abstract

Amyloidosis is a general term for diseases characterised by the deposition of insoluble amyloid fibrils in organs or tissues, leading to organ dysfunction and, in many cases, death. Amyloid fibrils are derived from soluble precursor proteins, with the number of known amyloidogenic proteins increasing over time. The identity of the precursor protein often predicts the disease phenotype, although many of the amyloidoses have overlapping clinical features. Most patients with amyloidosis will require biopsy of an involved organ or tissue to confirm the diagnosis. Cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis, however, may be diagnosed without a biopsy provided stringent criteria are met. Where amyloid is confirmed histologically, the identity of the amyloidogenic protein must be determined, given several of the amyloidoses have disease-specific therapies. Laser capture microdissection and tandem mass spectrometry, LCM-MS, has revolutionised amyloid subtyping, being able to identify the amyloidogenic protein more reliably than antibody-based methods such as immunohistochemistry. Here we summarise the biopsy approach to amyloidosis, as well as the non-biopsy diagnosis of cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis. Proteomic and antibody-based methods for amyloid subtyping are reviewed. Finally, an algorithm for confirming the diagnosis of amyloidosis is presented.

Type: Article
Title: Confirming the Diagnosis of Amyloidosis
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1159/000508022
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1159/000508022
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Inflammation
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10114978
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