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Household air pollution and under-five mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: an analysis of 14 demographic and health surveys

Bickton, FM; Ndeketa, L; Sibande, GT; Nkeramahame, J; Payesa, C; Milanzi, EB; (2020) Household air pollution and under-five mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: an analysis of 14 demographic and health surveys. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine , 25 (1) , Article 67. 10.1186/s12199-020-00902-4. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Globally, over four million deaths are attributed to exposure to household air pollution (HAP) annually. Evidence of the association between exposure to HAP and under-five mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is insufficient. We assessed the association between exposure to HAP and under-five mortality risk in 14 SSA countries. METHODS: We pooled Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from 14 SSA countries (N = 164376) collected between 2015 and 2018. We defined exposure to HAP as the use of biomass fuel for cooking in the household. Under-five mortality was defined as deaths before age five. Data were analyzed using mixed effects logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of the study population, 73% were exposed to HAP and under-five mortality was observed in 5%. HAP exposure was associated with under-five mortality, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.33 (95% confidence interval (CI) [1.03-1.71]). Children from households who cooked inside the home had higher risk of under-five mortality compared to households that cooked in separate buildings [0.85 (0.73-0.98)] or outside [0.75 (0.64-0.87)]. Lower risk of under-five mortality was also observed in breastfed children [0.09 (0.05-0.18)] compared to non-breastfed children. CONCLUSIONS: HAP exposure may be associated with an increased risk of under-five mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. More carefully designed longitudinal studies are required to contribute to these findings. In addition, awareness campaigns on the effects of HAP exposure and interventions to reduce the use of biomass fuels are required in SSA.

Type: Article
Title: Household air pollution and under-five mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: an analysis of 14 demographic and health surveys
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s12199-020-00902-4
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12199-020-00902-4
Language: English
Additional information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Keywords: Demographic Health Survey, Household air pollution, Sub-Saharan Africa, Under-five mortality
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Inst of Clinical Trials and Methodology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Inst of Clinical Trials and Methodology > MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10114728
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