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Urban Morphology and Residential Differentiation across Great Britain, 1881-1901

Lan, T; Longley, P; (2021) Urban Morphology and Residential Differentiation across Great Britain, 1881-1901. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 10.1080/24694452.2020.1859982. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

The nineteenth century saw rapid urbanization and dramatic social change in Great Britain, some of which can now be viewed at national scales for the first time through linkage of georeferenced digital historical data to contemporary and historical framework data. Here, we attempt to georeference every individual address record from the 1881, 1891, and 1901 censuses for Great Britain and to define the fast-growing historical street networks and residential geographies of every urban settlement. We next devise a scale-free historical geodemographic classification using variables common to these three censuses and assign cluster group characteristics to every urban street segment. We also link the evolution of the urban street morphology with changes in residential differentiation and the geodemographic assignments over the twenty-year study period. The results of this intensive data processing make it possible to chart the development of urban residential areas across Great Britain and bring focus to the changing social structures of the cities. We examine these changes with examples drawn from the entire British urban settlement system. Our conclusions discuss the implications of this extensive analysis for improved understanding of the evolution of Great Britain’s urban system. 19世纪的英国, 经历了快速城市化和剧烈社会变革。结合地理定位的数字历史数据、当代和历史框架数据, 本文首次在全国尺度上看到这种变化的一部分。对1881年、1891年和1901年英国人口普查中每个地址进行地理定位, 定义了每个城市定居点的快速发展的历史街道网络和居住地理。然后, 利用三次人口普查的共同变量, 设计了一个无尺度的历史地理人口分类, 并给每个城市路段赋予聚类组特征。本文还把城市街道形态的演变, 与20年间居住分化和地理人口分配的变化相联系起来。这种精细化数据处理的结果, 使得绘制整个英国城市居住区的发展成为可能, 从而关注不断变化的城市社会结构。对这些变化的讨论, 是基于遍及整个英国的城市居住体系的若干案例。本文结论部分, 讨论了这种分析对于更好地理解英国城市体系演变的意义。 En el siglo XIX, Gran Bretaña experimentó rápida urbanización y un cambio social dramático, cosas que ahora pueden ser apreciadas por primera vez a escala nacional, a través del nexo con datos digitales históricos georreferenciados a un marco de datos contemporáneos e históricos. Aquí intentamos georreferenciar cada registro de dirección individual a partir de los censos de 1881, 1891 y 1901 para Gran Bretaña, y definir las redes históricas de calles en rápida expansión y las geografías residenciales de cada asentamiento urbano. Luego diseñamos una clasificación geodemográfica histórica sin escala usando variables comunes de estos tres censos y asignamos las características grupales de aglomeración a cada segmento de calle urbano. También ligamos la evolución de la morfología callejera urbana con los cambios en diferenciación residencial y las asignaciones geodemográficas a lo largo del período de estudio de veinte años. Los resultados de este procesamiento intensivo de datos permiten trazar el desarrollo de áreas residenciales urbanas a través de Gran Bretaña y centrar la atención sobre las cambiantes estructuras sociales de las ciudades. Examinamos esos cambios con ejemplos sacados de todo el sistema británico de asentamientos urbanos. Nuestras conclusiones discuten las implicaciones de este análisis extensivo para mejorar el entendimiento de la evolución del sistema urbano de la Gran Bretaña.

Type: Article
Title: Urban Morphology and Residential Differentiation across Great Britain, 1881-1901
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1080/24694452.2020.1859982
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1080/24694452.2020.1859982
Language: English
Additional information: # 2021 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: geodemographics, georeferencing, Great Britain, historical censuses, urban dynamics
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS > Dept of Geography
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10114395
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