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First In-Situ Measurements of Plume Chemistry at Mount Garet Volcano, Island of Gaua (Vanuatu)

Lages, J; Moussallam, Y; Bani, P; Peters, N; Aiuppa, A; Bitetto, M; Giudice, G; (2020) First In-Situ Measurements of Plume Chemistry at Mount Garet Volcano, Island of Gaua (Vanuatu). Applied Sciences , 10 (20) , Article 7293. 10.3390/app10207293. Green open access

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Abstract

Recent volcanic gas compilations have urged the need to expand in-situ plume measurements to poorly studied, remote volcanic regions. Despite being recognized as one of the main volcanic epicenters on the planet, the Vanuatu arc remains poorly characterized for its subaerial emissions and their chemical imprints. Here, we report on the first plume chemistry data for Mount Garet, on the island of Gaua, one of the few persistent volatile emitters along the Vanuatu arc. Data were collected with a multi-component gas analyzer system (multi-GAS) during a field campaign in December 2018. The average volcanic gas chemistry is characterized by mean molar CO2/SO2, H2O/SO2, H2S/SO2 and H2/SO2 ratios of 0.87, 47.2, 0.13 and 0.01, respectively. Molar proportions in the gas plume are estimated at 95.9 ± 11.6, 1.8 ± 0.5, 2.0 ± 0.01, 0.26 ± 0.02 and 0.06 ± 0.01, for H2O, CO2, SO2, H2S and H2. Using the satellite-based 10-year (2005–2015) averaged SO2 flux of ~434 t d−1 for Mt. Garet, we estimate a total volatile output of about 6482 t d−1 (CO2 ~259 t d−1; H2O ~5758 t d−1; H2S ~30 t d−1; H2 ~0.5 t d−1). This may be representative of a quiescent, yet persistent degassing period at Mt. Garet; whilst, as indicated by SO2 flux reports for the 2009–2010 unrest, emissions can be much higher during eruptive episodes. Our estimated emission rates and gas composition for Mount Garet provide insightful information on volcanic gas signatures in the northernmost part of the Vanuatu Arc Segment. The apparent CO2-poor signature of high-temperature plume degassing at Mount Garet raises questions on the nature of sediments being subducted in this region of the arc and the possible role of the slab as the source of subaerial CO2. In order to better address the dynamics of along-arc volatile recycling, more volcanic gas surveys are needed focusing on northern Vanuatu volcanoes.

Type: Article
Title: First In-Situ Measurements of Plume Chemistry at Mount Garet Volcano, Island of Gaua (Vanuatu)
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3390/app10207293
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207293
Language: English
Additional information: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: Vanuatu; Gaua; Mount Garet; Multi-GAS; volcanic gas compositions; volatile fluxes
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Electronic and Electrical Eng
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10113716
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