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Trem2 promotes anti-inflammatory responses in microglia and is suppressed under pro-inflammatory conditions

Liu, W; Taso, O; Wang, R; Bayram, S; Graham, AC; Garcia-Reitboeck, P; Mallach, A; ... Salih, DA; + view all (2020) Trem2 promotes anti-inflammatory responses in microglia and is suppressed under pro-inflammatory conditions. Human Molecular Genetics 10.1093/hmg/ddaa209. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Genome-wide association studies have reported that, amongst other microglial genes, variants in TREM2 can profoundly increase the incidence of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We have investigated the role of TREM2 in primary microglial cultures from wild type mice by using siRNA to decrease Trem2 expression, and in parallel from knock-in mice heterozygous or homozygous for the Trem2 R47H AD risk variant. The prevailing phenotype of Trem2 R47H knock-in mice was decreased expression levels of Trem2 in microglia, which resulted in decreased density of microglia in the hippocampus. Overall, primary microglia with reduced Trem2 expression, either by siRNA or from the R47H knock-in mice, displayed a similar phenotype. Comparison of the effects of decreased Trem2 expression under conditions of LPS pro-inflammatory or IL-4 anti-inflammatory stimulation revealed the importance of Trem2 in driving a number of the genes up-regulated in the anti-inflammatory phenotype. RNA-seq analysis showed that IL-4 induced the expression of a programme of genes including Arg1 and Ap1b1 in microglia, which showed an attenuated response to IL-4 when Trem2 expression was decreased. Genes showing a similar expression profile to Arg1 were enriched for STAT6 transcription factor recognition elements in their promoter, and Trem2 knockdown decreased levels of STAT6. LPS-induced pro-inflammatory stimulation suppressed Trem2 expression, thus preventing TREM2’s anti-inflammatory drive. Given that anti-inflammatory signaling is associated with tissue repair, understanding the signaling mechanisms downstream of Trem2 in coordinating the pro- and anti-inflammatory balance of microglia, particularly mediating effects of the IL-4-regulated anti-inflammatory pathway, has important implications for fighting neurodegenerative disease.

Type: Article
Title: Trem2 promotes anti-inflammatory responses in microglia and is suppressed under pro-inflammatory conditions
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddaa209
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddaa209
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Neurodegenerative Diseases
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Neuroinflammation
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences > Neuro, Physiology and Pharmacology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy > Pharmacology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10110677
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