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Fluid-structure interaction analysis of the aortic valve in young healthy, ageing and post treatment conditions

Tango, Anna Maria; (2020) Fluid-structure interaction analysis of the aortic valve in young healthy, ageing and post treatment conditions. Doctoral thesis (Ph.D), UCL (University College London). Green open access

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Abstract

Optimal aortic valve function, limitation of blood damage, and frequency of thromboembolic events are all dependent upon the haemodynamics within the aortic root. Improved understanding of the young healthy physiological state via investigation of the fluid dynamics around and through the aortic valve is essential to identify detrimental changes leading to pathologies and develop novel therapeutic procedures. The aim of this study is to develop a numerical model that can support a better comprehension of the valve function and serve as a reference to identify the changes produced by specific pathologies and treatments. A Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) numerical model was developed and adapted to accurately replicate the conditions of a previous in vitro investigation into aortic valve dynamics, performed by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV). The model was validated on equivalent physical settings, in a pulse duplicator replicating the physiological healthy flow and pressure experienced in the left heart chambers. The resulting velocity fields and hydrodynamic valve performance indicators of the two analyses were qualitatively and quantitatively compared to validate the numerical model. The validated FSI model was then used to describe realistic young healthy, ageing and post treatment conditions, by eliminating the experimental and methodological limitations and approximations. In detail, in terms of treatments, both surgical and transcatheter valve replacement procedures were investigated. In terms of pathologies, typical alterations frequently due to ageing, namely thickening of the valve leaflets and progressive dilation of the aortic chamber, were studied. The analysis was performed by comparing the data obtained for the ageing and post treatment configurations with those of the young healthy root environment. The results were analysed in terms of leaflets kinematics, flow dynamics, pressure and valve performance parameters. The study suggests a new operating mechanism for the young healthy aortic valve leaflets considerably different from what reported in the literature to date and largely more efficient in terms of hydrodynamic performance.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Qualification: Ph.D
Title: Fluid-structure interaction analysis of the aortic valve in young healthy, ageing and post treatment conditions
Event: UCL (University College London)
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © The Author 2020. Original content in this thesis is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Any third-party copyright material present remains the property of its respective owner(s) and is licensed under its existing terms. Access may initially be restricted at the author’s request.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Mechanical Engineering
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10110324
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