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Identifying Cardiac Amyloid in Aortic Stenosis: ECV Quantification by CT in TAVR Patients

Scully, PR; Patel, KP; Saberwal, B; Klotz, E; Augusto, JB; Thornton, GD; Hughes, RK; ... Pugliese, F; + view all (2020) Identifying Cardiac Amyloid in Aortic Stenosis: ECV Quantification by CT in TAVR Patients. JACC: Cardiovasc Imaging 10.1016/j.jcmg.2020.05.029. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To validate computed tomography measured ECV (ECVCT) as part of routine evaluation for the detection of cardiac amyloid in patients with aortic stenosis (AS)-amyloid. BACKGROUND: AS-amyloid affects 1 in 7 elderly patients referred for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Bone scintigraphy with exclusion of a plasma cell dyscrasia can diagnose transthyretin-related cardiac amyloid noninvasively, for which novel treatments are emerging. Amyloid interstitial expansion increases the myocardial extracellular volume (ECV). METHODS: Patients with severe AS underwent bone scintigraphy (Perugini grade 0, negative; Perugini grades 1 to 3, increasingly positive) and routine TAVR evaluation CT imaging with ECVCT using 3- and 5-min post-contrast acquisitions. Twenty non-AS control patients also had ECVCT performed using the 5-min post-contrast acquisition. RESULTS: A total of 109 patients (43% male; mean age 86 ± 5 years) with severe AS and 20 control subjects were recruited. Sixteen (15%) had AS-amyloid on bone scintigraphy (grade 1, n = 5; grade 2, n = 11). ECVCT was 32 ± 3%, 34 ± 4%, and 43 ± 6% in Perugini grades 0, 1, and 2, respectively (p < 0.001 for trend) with control subjects lower than lone AS (28 ± 2%; p < 0.001). ECVCT accuracy for AS-amyloid detection versus lone AS was 0.87 (0.95 for 99mTc-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid Perugini grade 2 only), outperforming conventional electrocardiogram and echocardiography parameters. One composite parameter, the voltage/mass ratio, had utility (similar AUC of 0.87 for any cardiac amyloid detection), although in one-third of patients, this could not be calculated due to bundle branch block or ventricular paced rhythm. CONCLUSIONS: ECVCT during routine CT TAVR evaluation can reliably detect AS-amyloid, and the measured ECVCT tracks the degree of infiltration. Another measure of interstitial expansion, the voltage/mass ratio, also performed well.

Type: Article
Title: Identifying Cardiac Amyloid in Aortic Stenosis: ECV Quantification by CT in TAVR Patients
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2020.05.029
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2020.05.029
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: aortic stenosis, cardiac amyloidosis, computed tomography, extracellular volume
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Inflammation
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Clinical Science
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10108881
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