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A Multi-Annotator Survey of Sub-km Craters on Mars

Francis, A; Brown, J; Cameron, T; Crawford Clarke, R; Dodd, R; Hurdle, J; Neave, M; ... Muller, J-P; + view all (2020) A Multi-Annotator Survey of Sub-km Craters on Mars. Data , 5 (3) , Article 70. 10.3390/data5030070. Green open access

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Abstract

We present here a dataset of nearly 5000 small craters across roughly 1700 km^{2} of the Martian surface, in the MC-11 East quadrangle. The dataset covers twelve 2000-by-2000 pixel Context Camera images, each of which is comprehensively labelled by six annotators, whose results are combined using agglomerative clustering. Crater size-frequency distributions are centrally important to the estimation of planetary surface ages, in lieu of in-situ sampling. Older surfaces are exposed to meteoritic impactors for longer and, thus, are more densely cratered. However, whilst populations of larger craters are well understood, the processes governing the production and erosion of small (sub-km) craters are more poorly constrained. We argue that, by surveying larger numbers of small craters, the planetary science community can reduce some of the current uncertainties regarding their production and erosion rates. To this end, many have sought to use state-of-the-art object detection techniques utilising Deep Learning, which—although powerful—require very large amounts of labelled training data to perform optimally. This survey gives researchers a large dataset to analyse small crater statistics over MC-11 East, and allows them to better train and validate their crater detection algorithms. The collection of these data also demonstrates a multi-annotator method for the labelling of many small objects, which produces an estimated confidence score for each annotation and annotator.

Type: Article
Title: A Multi-Annotator Survey of Sub-km Craters on Mars
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3390/data5030070
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3390/data5030070
Language: English
Additional information: © 2020 by the Authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: Mars; craters; remote sensing; object detection; planetary science
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Space and Climate Physics
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10107452
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