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Wi-Fi RTT Ranging Performance Characterization and Positioning System Design

Ma, C; Wu, B; Selviah, D; Poslad, S; (2020) Wi-Fi RTT Ranging Performance Characterization and Positioning System Design. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing 10.1109/TMC.2020.3012563. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

The aim of this research is to implement a precise Wi-Fi indoor positioning system (IPS) or localization system based upon the IEEE 802.11mc Fine-Timing Measurement (FTM) scheme also known as the Wi-Fi Round Trip Time (RTT) ranging technique, where ranging refers to a sub-process of positioning that determines the distance between a transmitter and receiver. Our system and its algorithms were implemented using a COTS (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) smartphone and Wi-Fi access points. Experiments were conducted in several real-life indoor environments. This paper presents the detailed Wi-Fi RTT ranging performance of these devices in different system configurations and characterizes the systematic biases and noise model to improve the ranging accuracy. A novel three-step-positioning method is proposed to overcome the issues of no or multiple intersect points in trilateration due to ranging errors to improve positioning accuracy. This consists of first, systematic bias determination and removal; second, Clustering-based Trilateration (CbT) supported by Weighted Concentric Circle Generation (WCCG), namely CbT & WCCG; third, positioning result and trajectory optimization using a Kalman filter. As a result, the evaluation experiments gave a position accuracy of ±1.2 m in 2D static positioning and ±1.3 m for dynamic motion tracking. Also, our CbT & WCCG method demonstrate good tolerance against ranging errors. Moreover, the computational cost and positioning accuracy of CbT & WCCG methods are compared with Least Square (LS) and Recursive Least Square (RLS) methods and the accuracy standard deviation of our algorithm is the closest to the Cramer–Rao bound (CRB).

Type: Article
Title: Wi-Fi RTT Ranging Performance Characterization and Positioning System Design
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1109/TMC.2020.3012563
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1109/TMC.2020.3012563
Language: English
Additional information: © 2020 IEEE. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Keywords: Indoor Positioning System, Indoor localization, Wi-Fi-based positioning system, trilateration, tracking, Wi-Fi Fine-Timing Measurements, Wi-Fi Round-Trip Time, distance measurement, Fingerprint Recognition, Mobile Computing
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Electronic and Electrical Eng
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10106425
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