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Molecular mechanism of Fast Endophilin-Mediated Endocytosis

Casamento, A; Boucrot, E; (2020) Molecular mechanism of Fast Endophilin-Mediated Endocytosis. The Biochemical Journal , 477 (12) pp. 2327-2345. 10.1042/BCJ20190342. Green open access

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Abstract

Endocytosis mediates the cellular uptake of micronutrients and cell surface proteins. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the housekeeping pathway in resting cells but additional Clathrin-independent endocytic (CIE) routes, including Fast Endophilin-Mediated Endocytosis (FEME), internalize specific cargoes and support diverse cellular functions. FEME is part of the Dynamin-dependent subgroup of CIE pathways. Here, we review our current understanding of the molecular mechanism of FEME. Key steps are: (i) priming, (ii) cargo selection, (iii) membrane curvature and carrier formation, (iv) membrane scission and (v) cytosolic transport. All steps are controlled by regulatory mechanisms mediated by phosphoinositides and by kinases such as Src, LRRK2, Cdk5 and GSK3β. A key feature of FEME is that it is not constitutively active but triggered upon the stimulation of selected cell surface receptors by their ligands. In resting cells, there is a priming cycle that concentrates Endophilin into clusters on discrete locations of the plasma membrane. In the absence of receptor activation, the patches quickly abort and new cycles are initiated nearby, constantly priming the plasma membrane for FEME. Upon activation, receptors are swiftly sorted into pre-existing Endophilin clusters, which then bud to form FEME carriers within 10 s. We summarize the hallmarks of FEME and the techniques and assays required to identify it. Next, we review similarities and differences with other CIE pathways and proposed cargoes that may use FEME to enter cells. Finally, we submit pending questions and future milestones and discuss the exciting perspectives that targeting FEME may boost treatments against cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.

Type: Article
Title: Molecular mechanism of Fast Endophilin-Mediated Endocytosis
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1042/BCJ20190342
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1042/BCJ20190342
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Open access for this article was enabled by the participation of University College London in an all-inclusive Read & Publish pilot with Portland Press and the Biochemical Society under a transformative agreement with JISC.
Keywords: Clahtrin-independent, endocytosis, endophilin, FEME, trafficking
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences > Structural and Molecular Biology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10105180
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