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Pulse sequences for measuring exchange rates between proton species: From unlocalised NMR spectroscopy to chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging

Golay, X; Demetriou, E; Kujawa, A; (2020) Pulse sequences for measuring exchange rates between proton species: From unlocalised NMR spectroscopy to chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging. Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , 120 pp. 25-71. 10.1016/j.pnmrs.2020.06.001. Green open access

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Abstract

Within the field of NMR spectroscopy, the study of chemical exchange processes through saturation transfer techniques has a long history. In the context of MRI, chemical exchange techniques have been adapted to increase the sensitivity of imaging to small fractions of exchangeable protons, including the labile protons of amines, amides and hydroxyls. The MR contrast is generated by frequency-selective irradiation of the labile protons, which results in a reduction of the water signal associated with transfer of the labile protons’ saturated magnetization to the protons of the surrounding free water. The signal intensity depends on the rate of chemical exchange and the concentration of labile protons as well as on the properties of the irradiation field. This methodology is referred to as CEST (chemical exchange saturation transfer) imaging. Applications of CEST include imaging of molecules with short transverse relaxation times and mapping of physiological parameters such as pH, temperature, buffer concentration and chemical composition due to the dependency of this chemical exchange effect on all these parameters. This article aims to describe these effects both theoretically and experimentally. In depth analysis and mathematical modelling are provided for all pulse sequences designed to date to measure the chemical exchange rate. Importantly, it has become clear that the background signal from semi-solid protons and the presence of the Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE), either through direct dipole-dipole mechanisms or through exchange-relayed signals, complicates the analysis of CEST effects. Therefore, advanced methods to suppress these confounding factors have been developed, and these are also reviewed. Finally, the experimental work conducted both in vitro and in vivo is discussed and the progress of CEST imaging towards clinical practice is presented.

Type: Article
Title: Pulse sequences for measuring exchange rates between proton species: From unlocalised NMR spectroscopy to chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.pnmrs.2020.06.001
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnmrs.2020.06.001
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Brain Repair and Rehabilitation
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10104037
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