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Whipworm and roundworm infections

Else, KJ; Keiser, J; Holland, CV; Grencis, RK; Sattelle, DB; Fujiwara, RT; Bueno, LL; ... Cooper, PJ; + view all (2020) Whipworm and roundworm infections. Nature Reviews Disease Primers , 6 , Article 44. 10.1038/s41572-020-0171-3. Green open access

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Abstract

Trichuriasis and ascariasis are neglected tropical diseases caused by the gastrointestinal dwelling nematodes Trichuris trichiura (a whipworm) and Ascaris lumbricoides (a roundworm), respectively. Both parasites are staggeringly prevalent, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas, and are associated with substantial morbidity. Infection is initiated by ingestion of infective eggs, which hatch in the intestine. Thereafter, T. trichiura larvae moult within intestinal epithelial cells, with adult worms embedded in a partially intracellular niche in the large intestine, whereas A. lumbricoides larvae penetrate the gut mucosa and migrate through the liver and lungs before returning to the lumen of the small intestine, where adult worms dwell. Both species elicit type 2 anti-parasite immunity. Diagnosis is typically based on clinical presentation (gastrointestinal symptoms and inflammation) and the detection of eggs or parasite DNA in the faeces. Prevention and treatment strategies rely on periodic mass drug administration (generally with albendazole or mebendazole) to at-risk populations and improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene. The effectiveness of drug treatment is very high for A. lumbricoides infections, whereas cure rates for T. trichiura infections are low. Novel anthelminthic drugs are needed, together with vaccine development and tools for diagnosis and assessment of parasite control in the field.

Type: Article
Title: Whipworm and roundworm infections
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1038/s41572-020-0171-3
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41572-020-0171-3
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Respiratory Medicine
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10103801
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