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Determinants of catastrophic health expenditures in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Doshmangir, L; Yousefi, M; Hasanpoor, E; Eshtiagh, B; Haghparast-Bidgoli, H; (2020) Determinants of catastrophic health expenditures in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation , 18 , Article 17. 10.1186/s12962-020-00212-0. Green open access

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Abstract

Background: Catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) are of concern to policy makers and can prevent individuals accessing effective health care services. The exposure of households to CHE is one of the indices used to evaluate and address the level of financial risk protection in health systems, which is a key priority in the global health policy agenda and an indicator of progress toward the UN Sustainable Development Goal for Universal Health Coverage. This study aims to assess the CHE at population and disease levels and its influencing factors in Iran. / Methods: This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis. The following keywords and their Persian equivalents were used for the review: Catastrophic Health Expenditures; Health Equity; Health System Equity; Financial Contribution; Health Expenditures; Financial Protection; Financial Catastrophe; and Health Financing Equity. These keywords were searched with no time limit until October 2019 in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, Embase, and the national databases of Iran. Studies that met a set of inclusion criteria formed part of the meta-analysis and results were analyzed using a random-effects model. / Results: The review identified 53 relevant studies, of which 40 are conducted at the population level and 13 are disease specific. At the population level, the rate of CHE is 4.7% (95% CI 4.1% to 5.3%, n = 52). Across diseases, the percentage of CHE is 25.3% (95% CI 11.7% to 46.5%, n = 13), among cancer patients, while people undergoing dialysis face the highest percentage of CHE (54.5%). The most important factors influencing the rate of CHE in these studies are health insurance status, having a household member aged 60–65 years or older, gender of the head of household, and the use of inpatient and outpatient services. / Conclusion: The results suggest that catastrophic health spending in Iran has increased from 2001 to 2015 and has reached its highest levels in the last 5 years. It is therefore imperative to review and develop fair health financing policies to protect people against financial hardship. This review and meta-analysis provides evidence to help inform effective health financing strategies and policies to prioritise high-burden disease groups and address the determinants of CHE.

Type: Article
Title: Determinants of catastrophic health expenditures in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s12962-020-00212-0
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12962-020-00212-0
Language: English
Additional information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Keywords: Catastrophic health expenditures, Health equity, Fair health financing, Iran
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10101484
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