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The effect of HIV status on the frequency and severity of acute respiratory illness

Brown, J; Pickett, E; Smith, C; Sachikonye, M; Brooks, L; Mahungu, T; Lowe, DM; ... Lipman, M; + view all (2020) The effect of HIV status on the frequency and severity of acute respiratory illness. PLoS One , 15 (5) , Article e0232977. 10.1371/journal.pone.0232977. Green open access

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral therapy has improved the health of people living with HIV (PLW-HIV), though less is known about how this impacts on acute respiratory illness. These illnesses are a common cause of ill health in the general population and any increase in their frequency or severity in PLW-HIV might have significant implications for health-related quality of life and the development of chronic respiratory disease. METHODS: In a prospective observational cohort study following PLW-HIV and HIV negative participants for 12 months with weekly documentation of any acute respiratory illness, we compared the frequency, severity and healthcare use associated with acute respiratory illnesses to determine whether PLW-HIV continue to have a greater frequency or severity of such illnesses despite antiretroviral therapy. RESULTS: We followed-up 136 HIV positive and 73 HIV negative participants for 12 months with weekly documentation of any new respiratory symptoms. We found that HIV status did not affect the frequency of acute respiratory illness: unadjusted incidence rates per person year of follow-up were 2.08 illnesses (95% CI 1.81-2.38) and 2.30 illnesses (1.94-2.70) in HIV positive and negative participants respectively, IRR 0.87 (0.70-1.07) p = 0.18. However, when acute respiratory illnesses occurred, PLW-HIV reported more severe symptoms (relative fold-change in symptom score 1.61 (1.28-2.02), p <0.001) and were more likely to seek healthcare advice (42% vs 18% of illnesses, odds ratio 3.32 (1.48-7.39), p = 0.003). After adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics, PLW-HIV still had higher symptom scores when unwell. CONCLUSIONS: HIV suppression with antiretroviral therapy reduces the frequency of acute respiratory illness to background levels, however when these occur, they are associated with more severe self-reported symptoms and greater healthcare utilisation. Exploration of the reasons for this greater severity of acute respiratory illness may allow targeted interventions to improve the health of people living with HIV. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN38386321).

Type: Article
Title: The effect of HIV status on the frequency and severity of acute respiratory illness
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0232977
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0232977
Language: English
Additional information: © 2020 Brown et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: HIV, HIV clinical manifestations, Antiretroviral therapy, Spirometry, Respiratory infections, Smoking habits, Respiratory physiology, Viral pathogens
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Respiratory Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health > Infection and Population Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10099395
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