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The computation of blood flow waveforms from digital X-ray angiographic data

Seifalian, Alexander Marcus; (1993) The computation of blood flow waveforms from digital X-ray angiographic data. Doctoral thesis (Ph.D.), University College London (United Kingdom). Green open access

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Abstract

This thesis investigates a novel technique for the quantitative measurement of pulsatile blood flow waveforms and mean blood flow rates using digital X-ray angiographic data. Blood flow waveforms were determined following an intra-arterial injection of contrast material. Instantaneous blood velocities were estimated by generating a 'parametric image' from dynamic X-ray angiographic images in which the image grey-level represented contrast material concentration as a function of time and true distance in three dimensions along a vessel segment. Adjacent concentration-distance profiles in the parametric image of iodine concentration versus distance and time were shifted along the vessel axis until a match occurred. A match was defined as the point where the mean sum of the squares of the differences between the two profiles was a minimum. The distance translated per frame interval gave the instantaneous contrast material bolus velocity. The technique initially was validated using synthetic data from a computer simulation of angiographic data which included the effect of pulsatile blood flow and X-ray quantum noise. The data were generated for a range of vessels from 2 mm to 6 mm in diameter. Different injection techniques and their effects on the accuracy of blood flow measurements were studied. Validation of the technique was performed using an experimental phantom of blood circulation, consisting of a pump, flexible plastic tubing, the tubular probe of an electromagnetic flowmeter and a solenoid to simulate a pulsatile flow waveform which included reverse flow. The technique was validated for both two- and three-dimensional representations of the blood vessel, for various flow rates and calibre sizes. The effects of various physical factors were studied, including the distance between injection and imaging sites and the length of artery analysed. Finally, this method was applied to clinical data from femoral arteries and arteries in the head and neck.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Qualification: Ph.D.
Title: The computation of blood flow waveforms from digital X-ray angiographic data
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Language: English
Additional information: Thesis digitised by ProQuest.
Keywords: (UMI)AAIU057118; Biological sciences
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10098009
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