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Dynamics of within-host Mycobacterium tuberculosis diversity and heteroresistance during treatment

Nimmo, C; Brien, K; Millard, J; Grant, AD; Padayatchi, N; Pym, AS; O'Donnell, M; ... Balloux, F; + view all (2020) Dynamics of within-host Mycobacterium tuberculosis diversity and heteroresistance during treatment. EBioMedicine , 55 , Article 102747. 10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.102747. Green open access

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Abstract

Background: Studying within-host genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in patients during treatment may identify adaptations to antibiotic and immune pressure. Understanding the significance of genetic heteroresistance, and more specifically heterozygous resistance-associated variants (RAVs), is clinically important given increasing use of rapid molecular tests and whole genome sequencing (WGS). Methods: We analyse data from six studies in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Most patients (>75%) had baseline rifampicin resistance. Sputum was collected for culture at baseline and at between two and nine intervals until month six. Positive cultures underwent WGS. Mixed infections and reinfections were excluded from analysis. Findings: Baseline Mtb overall genetic diversity (at treatment initiation or major change to regimen) was associated with cavitary disease, not taking antiretroviral therapy if HIV infected, infection with lineage 2 strains and absence of second-line drug resistance on univariate analyses. Baseline genetic diversity was not associated with six-month outcome. Genetic diversity increased from baseline to weeks one and two before returning to previous levels. Baseline genetic heteroresistance was most common for bedaquiline (6/10 [60%] of isolates with RAVs) and fluoroquinolones (9/62 [13%]). Most patients with heterozygous RAVs on WGS with sequential isolates available demonstrated RAV persistence or fixation (17/20, 85%). New RAVs emerged in 9/286 (3%) patients during treatment. We could detect low-frequency RAVs preceding emergent resistance in only one case, although validation of deep sequencing to detect rare variants is required. Interpretation: In this study of single-strain Mtb infections, baseline within-host bacterial genetic diversity did not predict outcome but may reveal adaptations to host and drug pressures. Predicting emergent resistance from low-frequency RAVs requires further work to separate transient from consequential mutations. Funding: Wellcome Trust, NIH/NIAID

Type: Article
Title: Dynamics of within-host Mycobacterium tuberculosis diversity and heteroresistance during treatment
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.102747
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.102747
Language: English
Additional information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, TB, Heteroresistance, Genetic diversity, Bedaquiline, Whole genome sequencing
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences > Genetics, Evolution and Environment
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci > Department of Surgical Biotechnology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10097235
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