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Gender differences in musical motivation at different levels of expertise

Hallam, S; Creech, A; Varvarigou, M; Papageorgi, I; (2018) Gender differences in musical motivation at different levels of expertise. Psychology of Music 10.1177/0305735618815955. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Recently, models have been developed that recognise the complexity of motivation. These set out the interactions that occur between environmental (cultural, institutional, familial, educational) and internal factors (cognition and affect) enhancing or reducing motivation. Despite this we know very little about gender differences in motivation in relation to playing an instrument. The current study aimed to address this issue, exploring gender differences in motivation and whether these changed as expertise developed. A total of 3325 children ranging in level of expertise from beginner through to Grade 8 level in independent instrumental music examinations completed a questionnaire that included a seven-point Likert scale with statements exploring different aspects of motivation. A principal components analysis was undertaken and six factors emerged: support and social affirmation; social life and enjoyment of musical activities; enjoyment of performing; self-beliefs; enjoyment of lessons, playing and practise; and disliking practise. The only statistically significant gender difference was in relation to self-beliefs with the boys consistently scoring higher. Further research is needed to establish why this is the case. The findings have major implications for education.

Type: Article
Title: Gender differences in musical motivation at different levels of expertise
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1177/0305735618815955
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0305735618815955
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions
Keywords: Expertise, gender, instruments, motivation, music
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Education
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Education > UCL Institute of Education
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Education > UCL Institute of Education > IOE - Education, Practice and Society
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Education > UCL Institute of Education > IOE - Social Research Institute
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10094195
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