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Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for schizophrenia or all non-affective psychoses

King, M; Jones, R; Petersen, I; Hamilton, F; Nazareth, I; (2020) Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for schizophrenia or all non-affective psychoses. Psychological Medicine 10.1017/S0033291720000136. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Smoking tobacco is regarded as an epiphenomenon in patients with schizophrenia when it may be causal. We aimed to examine whether smoking status is related to the onset of schizophrenia or the broader diagnosis of non-affective psychosis, including schizophrenia. METHODS: We used data from The Health Improvement Network primary care database to identify people aged 15-24 between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2009. We followed them until the earliest of: first diagnosis of schizophrenia (or psychosis), patient left the practice, practice left THIN, patient died or 31 December 2014. RESULTS: In men, incidence rates for schizophrenia per 100 000 person years at risk were higher in smoking initiators (non-smoker who became a smoker during the study) than in non-smokers (adjusted IRR 1.94; 95% CI 1.29-2.91) and higher still in smokers (adjusted IRR 3.32; 95% CI 2.67-4.14). Among women, the incidence rate of schizophrenia was higher in smokers than in non-smokers (adjusted IRR 1.50; 95% CI 1.06-2.12), but no higher in smoking initiators than non-smokers. For non-affective psychosis, the pattern was similar for men but more evident in women where psychosis incidence rates were higher in smoking initiators (adjusted IRR 1.90; 95% CI 1.40-2.56) and in smokers (adjusted IRR 2.13; 95% CI 1.76-2.57) than in non-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: We found an important and strong association between smoking and incidence of schizophrenia. Smoking may increase risk through as yet unknown pathways or smoking may share genetic risk with schizophrenia and non-affective psychoses.

Type: Article
Title: Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for schizophrenia or all non-affective psychoses
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1017/S0033291720000136
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720000136
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Onset, primary care, risk, schizophrenia, smoking
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Division of Psychiatry
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Primary Care and Population Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10093135
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