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Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: The Variant Less Known

Hughes, RK; Knott, KD; Malcolmson, J; Augusto, JB; Mohiddin, SA; Kellman, P; Moon, JC; (2020) Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: The Variant Less Known. Journal of the American Heart Association , 9 (5) , Article e015294. 10.1161/JAHA.119.015294. Green open access

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Abstract

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an umbrella term for a heterogeneous heart muscle disease that was historically (and still is) defined by the detection of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) in the absence of abnormal cardiac loading conditions. Long after this morphological definition was established, the genetic basis of HCM was discovered, and we now know it is predominantly caused by autosomal dominant mutations in sarcomeric protein genes.1 Several patterns of LVH have been described in HCM: asymmetric septal (here referred to as “classic” HCM), concentric, reverse septal, neutral, and apical (ApHCM),2 as well as other, rarer LVH variants such as isolated lateral LVH and isolated inferoseptal LVH. Distinguishing between morphological HCM subtypes has conferred little in terms of personalized management strategies, with one distinctive exception: ApHCM. Compared with classic HCM, ApHCM is more sporadic, sarcomere mutations are detected less frequently, there is more atrial fibrillation (AF) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk factors differ. No authoritative ApHCM‐specific recommendations to guide diagnosis, family screening, and patient risk stratification currently exist. First described in Japan in 1976,2 ApHCM is exemplified by “giant” negative precordial T‐waves on electrocardiography and by “spadelike” configuration of its LV cavity in end diastole.3 This review summarizes the epidemiology, clinical expression, genetics, and prognosis of ApHCM, while also highlighting knowledge gaps

Type: Article
Title: Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: The Variant Less Known
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.119.015294
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.015294
Language: English
Additional information: This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Keywords: apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, imaging
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Clinical Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Population Science and Experimental Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Population Science and Experimental Medicine > MRC Unit for Lifelong Hlth and Ageing
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10092684
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