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Systematic review of methodologies used to assess mastectomy flap viability

Jeon, FHK; Varghese, J; Griffin, M; Butler, PE; Ghosh, D; Mosahebi, A; (2018) Systematic review of methodologies used to assess mastectomy flap viability. BJS Open , 2 (4) pp. 175-184. 10.1002/bjs5.61. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND Accurate prediction of mastectomy skin flap viability is vital as necrosis causes significant morbidity, potentially compromising results and delaying oncological management. Traditionally assessed by clinical judgement, a more objective evaluation can be provided using intraoperative imaging modalities. This systematic review aimed to compare all intraoperative techniques for assessment of mastectomy flap viability. METHODS A systematic literature review was performed using MEDLINE and Embase databases. Primary outcomes reported included specificity, sensitivity and predictive values of each test, and mean rates of mastectomy flap necrosis and reoperation. Secondary outcomes included cost analysis. RESULTS Some 18 studies were included. Designs were prospective cohort study (8), retrospective case series (4), prospective case series (3), retrospective case–control study (1), prospective pilot trial (1) and cost analysis study (1). The studies compared indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) (16 studies) and fluorescein dye angiography (FA) (3 studies) with clinical judgement. Sensitivity and specificity were highest for ICGA (5 studies) ranging from 38 to 100 and 68 to 91 per cent respectively. Both methods overpredicted necrosis. Mean rates of flap necrosis and reoperation decreased with ICGA (7·9 and 5·5 per cent respectively) and FA (3 and 0 per cent) compared with clinical judgement (19·4 and 12·9 per cent). Two studies were designed to define numerical parameters corresponding to perfusion using intraoperative techniques. Two studies performed a cost analysis for ICGA; one claimed a cost benefit and the other advocated its use in high‐risk patients only. CONCLUSION ICGA and FA are potentially useful tools for mastectomy flap assessment. However, the predictive accuracy is subject to the specific settings and model of equipment used. Current recommendations support their use in high‐risk patients.

Type: Article
Title: Systematic review of methodologies used to assess mastectomy flap viability
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1002/bjs5.61
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs5.61
Language: English
Additional information: This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci > Department of Surgical Biotechnology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10092271
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