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Generative Models for Preprocessing of Hospital Brain Scans

Brudfors, Mikael; (2020) Generative Models for Preprocessing of Hospital Brain Scans. Doctoral thesis (Ph.D), UCL (University College London). Green open access

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Abstract

I will in this thesis present novel computational methods for processing routine clinical brain scans. Such scans were originally acquired for qualitative assessment by trained radiologists, and present a number of difficulties for computational models, such as those within common neuroimaging analysis software. The overarching objective of this work is to enable efficient and fully automated analysis of large neuroimaging datasets, of the type currently present in many hospitals worldwide. The methods presented are based on probabilistic, generative models of the observed imaging data, and therefore rely on informative priors and realistic forward models. The first part of the thesis will present a model for image quality improvement, whose key component is a novel prior for multimodal datasets. I will demonstrate its effectiveness for super-resolving thick-sliced clinical MR scans and for denoising CT images and MR-based, multi-parametric mapping acquisitions. I will then show how the same prior can be used for within-subject, intermodal image registration, for more robustly registering large numbers of clinical scans. The second part of the thesis focusses on improved, automatic segmentation and spatial normalisation of routine clinical brain scans. I propose two extensions to a widely used segmentation technique. First, a method for this model to handle missing data, which allows me to predict entirely missing modalities from one, or a few, MR contrasts. Second, a principled way of combining the strengths of probabilistic, generative models with the unprecedented discriminative capability of deep learning. By introducing a convolutional neural network as a Markov random field prior, I can model nonlinear class interactions and learn these using backpropagation. I show that this model is robust to sequence and scanner variability. Finally, I show examples of fitting a population-level, generative model to various neuroimaging data, which can model, e.g., CT scans with haemorrhagic lesions.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Qualification: Ph.D
Title: Generative Models for Preprocessing of Hospital Brain Scans
Event: UCL
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © The Author 2020. Original content in this thesis is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Any third-party copyright material present remains the property of its respective owner(s) and is licensed under its existing terms. Access may initially be restricted at the author’s request.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Imaging Neuroscience
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Chemical Engineering
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10090849
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