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Urogenital tuberculosis — epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical features

Muneer, A; Macrae, B; Krishnamoorthy, S; Zumla, A; (2019) Urogenital tuberculosis — epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical features. Nature Reviews Urology , 16 pp. 573-598. 10.1038/s41585-019-0228-9. Green open access

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Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common cause of death from infectious disease worldwide. A substantial proportion of patients presenting with extrapulmonary TB have urogenital TB (UG-TB), which can easily be overlooked owing to non-specific symptoms, chronic and cryptic protean clinical manifestations, and lack of clinician awareness of the possibility of TB. Delay in diagnosis results in disease progression, irreversible tissue and organ damage and chronic renal failure. UG-TB can manifest with acute or chronic inflammation of the urinary or genital tract, abdominal pain, abdominal mass, obstructive uropathy, infertility, menstrual irregularities and abnormal renal function tests. Advanced UG-TB can cause renal scarring, distortion of renal calyces and pelvic, ureteric strictures, stenosis, urinary outflow tract obstruction, hydroureter, hydronephrosis, renal failure and reduced bladder capacity. The specific diagnosis of UG-TB is achieved by culturing Mycobacterium tuberculosis from an appropriate clinical sample or by DNA identification. Imaging can aid in localizing site, extent and effect of the disease, obtaining tissue samples for diagnosis, planning medical or surgical management, and monitoring response to treatment. Drug-sensitive TB requires 6–9 months of WHO-recommended standard treatment regimens. Drug-resistant TB requires 12–24 months of therapy with toxic drugs with close monitoring. Surgical intervention as an adjunct to medical drug treatment is required in certain circumstances. Current challenges in UG-TB management include making an early diagnosis, raising clinical awareness, developing rapid and sensitive TB diagnostics tests, and improving treatment outcomes.

Type: Article
Title: Urogenital tuberculosis — epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical features
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1038/s41585-019-0228-9
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41585-019-0228-9
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci > Department of Surgical Biotechnology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10090418
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