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Endocrine morbidity in midline brain defects: Differences between septo-optic dysplasia and related disorders

Cerbone, M; Güemes, M; Wade, A; Improda, N; Dattani, M; (2020) Endocrine morbidity in midline brain defects: Differences between septo-optic dysplasia and related disorders. EClinicalMedicine 10.1016/j.eclinm.2019.11.017. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Background Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a heterogeneous congenital condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical phenotypes of a large cohort of children with SOD, Multiple Pituitary Hormone Deficiency (MPHD) and Optic Nerve Hypoplasia (ONH), with a focus on endocrine testing. Methods Retrospective single-centre longitudinal study of children with SOD (n:171), MPHD (n:53) and ONH (n:35). SOD+ and SOD- indicate patients with or without hypopituitarism, respectively. Findings All deficits were more frequent and occurred earlier in MPHD than SOD+ [Hazard Ratios (HR): 0·63(0·45,0·89) for GH, 0·48(0·34,0·69) for TSH, 0·55(0·38,0·80) for ACTH, 0·28(0·11,0·68) for gonadotropins], except Diabetes Insipidus (DI) [HR: 2·27(0·88,5·9)]. Severe hypothalamo-pituitary (H-P) abnormalities were more frequent in MPHD [80·0% vs 41·6%, p<0·0001 for Ectopic Posterior Pituitary (EPP)]. Stalk and PP abnormalities were associated with more severe endocrine phenotypes and placed a subgroup of SOD+ at risk of developing deficits earlier. SOD and ONH shared heterogeneous phenotypes ranging from pubertal delay to precocity and from leanness to extreme obesity, whilst MPHD had GnD and obesity only. Mortality was recorded in 4·2% (6/144) SOD and 3·2% (1/31) ONH, and only in patients with multisystem phenotypes. Interpretation More than a single disease, SOD represents a spectrum of malformative conditions involving different brain structures and characterised by a dynamic and sequential nature of endocrine. In contrast, MPHD displays a more homogeneous phenotype of (mainly) anterior pituitary early-onset failure. Stalk and PP abnormalities place a subgroup of SOD+ at a higher risk of early-onset deficits. Additionally, there are striking differences between the SOD and MPHD cohorts in terms of pubertal progression. The shared phenotypes between ONH and SOD could be partly explained by common hypothalamic dysfunction. The differences between the cohorts are important as they may aid in planning management and preventing morbidity by dictating earlier interventions.

Type: Article
Title: Endocrine morbidity in midline brain defects: Differences between septo-optic dysplasia and related disorders
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2019.11.017
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2019.11.017
Language: English
Additional information: © 2019 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Keywords: Septo-optic dysplasia, Hypopituitarism, Optic nerve hypoplasia, Midline brain defects, Pubertal disorders
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Genetics and Genomic Medicine Dept
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Population, Policy and Practice Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10090155
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