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Effectiveness of Transmitted Drug Resistance Testing Before Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Positive Individuals

Lodi, S; Günthard, HF; Gill, J; Phillips, AN; Dunn, D; Vu, Q; Siemieniuk, R; ... Hernán, MA; + view all (2019) Effectiveness of Transmitted Drug Resistance Testing Before Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Positive Individuals. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes , 82 (3) pp. 314-320. 10.1097/QAI.0000000000002135. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: For people living with HIV, major guidelines in high-income countries recommend testing for transmitted drug resistance (TDR) to guide the choice of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, individuals who fail a first-line regimen can now be switched to one of several effective regimens. Therefore, the virological and clinical benefit of TDR testing needs to be evaluated. METHODS: We included individuals from the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration who enrolled <6 months of HIV diagnosis between 2006 and 2015, were ART-naive, and had measured CD4 count and HIV-RNA. Follow-up started at the date when all inclusion criteria were first met (baseline). We compared 2 strategies: (1) TDR testing within 3 months of baseline versus (2) no TDR testing. We used inverse probability weighting to estimate the 5-year proportion and hazard ratios (HRs) of virological suppression (confirmed HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL), and of AIDS or death under both strategies. RESULTS: Of 25,672 eligible individuals (82% males, 52% diagnosed in 2010 or later), 17,189 (67%) were tested for TDR within 3 months of baseline. Of these, 6% had intermediate- or high-level TDR to any antiretroviral drug. The estimated 5-year proportion virologically suppressed was 77% under TDR testing and 74% under no TDR testing; HR 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.03 to 1.19). The estimated 5-year risk of AIDS or death was 6% under both strategies; HR 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.95 to 1.12). CONCLUSIONS: TDR prevalence was low. Although TDR testing improved virological response, we found no evidence that it reduced the incidence of AIDS or death in first 5 years after diagnosis.

Type: Article
Title: Effectiveness of Transmitted Drug Resistance Testing Before Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Positive Individuals
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000002135
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002135
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Inst of Clinical Trials and Methodology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Inst of Clinical Trials and Methodology > MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health > Infection and Population Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10088825
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