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Aetiology, Risk Factors, and Biomarkers in Systemic Sclerosis with Interstitial Lung Disease

Khanna, D; Tashkin, DP; Denton, CP; Renzoni, EA; Desai, SR; Varga, J; (2019) Aetiology, Risk Factors, and Biomarkers in Systemic Sclerosis with Interstitial Lung Disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 10.1164/rccm.201903-0563CI. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a complex, multi-organ, autoimmune disease. Lung fibrosis occurs in ~80% of patients with SSc; 25-30% develop progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD). The pathogenesis of fibrosis in SSc associated ILD (SSc-ILD) involves cellular injury, activation/differentiation of mesenchymal cells and morphological/biological changes in epithelial/endothelial cells. Risk factors for progressive SSc-ILD include older age, male sex, lung involvement on baseline high-resolution computed tomography, reduced diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and reduced forced vital capacity. SSc-ILD is characterized by genetic risk architecture distinct from that associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Presence of anti-Scl-70 antibodies and absence of anti-centromere antibodies indicate increased likelihood of progressive ILD. Elevated levels of serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL6) and CRP are associated with SSc-ILD severity, although whether KL6 independently predicts SSc-ILD progression remains controversial. A promising prognostic indicator is serum chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18. SSc-ILD shares similarities with IPF, although clear differences exist. Histologically, a non-specific interstitial pneumonia pattern is commonly observed in SSc-ILD, whereas IPF is defined by usual interstitial pneumonia. The course of SSc-ILD is variable, ranging from minor, stable disease to a progressive course, while all IPF patients experience progression of disease. Although appropriately treated SSc-ILD patients have better chances of stabilization and survival, a relentlessly progressive course, akin to IPF, is seen in a minority. Better understanding of cellular and molecular pathogenesis, genetic risk and distinctive features of SSc-ILD, and identification of robust prognostic biomarkers are needed for optimal disease management. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Type: Article
Title: Aetiology, Risk Factors, and Biomarkers in Systemic Sclerosis with Interstitial Lung Disease
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201903-0563CI
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201903-0563CI
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Autoimmune diseases, Biomarkers, Interstitial lung diseases, Risk factors, Systemic sclerosis
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Inflammation
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10088624
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