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Expanding Clinical Phenotype and Novel Insights into the Pathogenesis of ICOS Deficiency

Abolhassani, H; El-Sherbiny, YM; Arumugakani, G; Carter, C; Richards, S; Lawless, D; Wood, P; ... Savic, S; + view all (2019) Expanding Clinical Phenotype and Novel Insights into the Pathogenesis of ICOS Deficiency. Journal of Clinical Immunology 10.1007/s10875-019-00735-z. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Inducible T cell co-stimulator (ICOS) deficiency has been categorized as a combined immunodeficiency often complicated by enteropathies, autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, and malignancy. We report seven new patients and four novel ICOS mutations resulting in a common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)-like phenotype and show that dysregulated IL-12 release, reduced cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) expression, and skewing towards a Th1-dominant phenotype are all associated with inflammatory complications in this condition. METHODS: A combination of whole exome and Sanger sequencing was used to identify novel mutations. Standard clinical and immunological evaluation was performed. FACS and ELISA-based assays were used to study cytokine responses and ICOS/ICOSL/CTLA4 expression following stimulation of whole blood and PBMCs with multiple TLR ligands, anti-CD3, and PHA. RESULTS: Four novel ICOS mutations included homozygous c.323_332del, homozygous c.451C>G, and compound heterozygous c.58+1G>A/c.356T>C. The predominant clinical phenotype was that of antibody deficiency associated with inflammatory complications in 4/7 patients. Six out of seven patients were treated with immunoglobulin replacement and one patient died from salmonella sepsis. All patients who were tested showed reduced IL-10 and IL-17 cytokine responses, normal IL-1β, IL6, and TNF release following LPS stimulation and highly elevated IL-12 production in response to combined LPS/IFNγ stimulation. This was associated with skewing of CD4+ T cells towards Th1 phenotype and increased expression of ICOSL on monocytes. Lastly, reduced CTLA4 expression was found in 2 patients. One patient treated with ustekinumab for pancytopenia due to granulomatous bone marrow infiltration failed to respond to this targeted therapy. CONCLUSIONS: ICOS deficiency is associated with defective T cell activation, with simultaneously enhanced stimulation of monocytes. The latter is likely to result from a lack of ICOS/ICOSL interaction which might be necessary to provide negative feedback which limits monocytes activation.

Type: Article
Title: Expanding Clinical Phenotype and Novel Insights into the Pathogenesis of ICOS Deficiency
Location: Netherlands
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1007/s10875-019-00735-z
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10875-019-00735-z
Language: English
Additional information: This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Keywords: ICOS deficiency, Primary immunodeficiency, antibody deficiency, chronic diarrhea, granulomatous inflammation, ustekinumab
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10088596
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