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Neuroplasticity of Ipsilateral Cortical Motor Representations, Training Effects and Role in Stroke Recovery

Hoad, Damon; (2019) Neuroplasticity of Ipsilateral Cortical Motor Representations, Training Effects and Role in Stroke Recovery. Doctoral thesis (Ph.D), UCL (University College London). Green open access

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Abstract

This thesis examines the contribution of the ipsilateral hemisphere to motor control with the aim of evaluating the potential of the contralesional hemisphere to contribute to motor recovery after stroke. Predictive algorithms based on neurobiological principles emphasize integrity of the ipsilesional corticospinal tract as the strongest prognostic indicator of good motor recovery. In contrast, extensive lesions placing reliance on alternative contralesional ipsilateral motor pathways are associated with poor recovery. Within the predictive algorithms are elements of motor control that rely on contributions from ipsilateral motor pathways, suggesting that balanced, parallel contralesional contributions can be beneficial. Current therapeutic approaches have focussed on the maladaptive potential of the contralesional hemisphere and sought to inhibit its activity with neuromodulation. Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation I seek examples of beneficial plasticity in ipsilateral cortical motor representations of expert performers, who have accumulated vast amounts of deliberate practise training skilled bilateral activation of muscles habitually under ipsilateral control. I demonstrate that ipsilateral cortical motor representations reorganize in response to training to acquisition of skilled motor performance. Features of this reorganization are compatible with evidence suggesting ipsilateral importance in synergy representations, controlled through corticoreticulopropriospinal pathways. I demonstrate that ipsilateral plasticity can associate positively with motor recovery after stroke. Features of plastic change in ipsilateral cortical representations are shown in response to robotic training of chronic stroke patients. These findings have implications for the individualization of motor rehabilitation after stroke, and prompt reappraisal of the approach to therapeutic intervention in the chronic phase of stroke.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Qualification: Ph.D
Title: Neuroplasticity of Ipsilateral Cortical Motor Representations, Training Effects and Role in Stroke Recovery
Event: UCL (University College London)
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © The Author 2019. Original content in this thesis is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Any third-party copyright material present remains the property of its respective owner(s) and is licensed under its existing terms. Access may initially be restricted at the author’s request.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10088292
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