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Prevalence and Risk Factors for CKD Among Brickmaking Workers in La Paz Centro, Nicaragua

Gallo-Ruiz, L; Sennett, CM; Sanchez-Delgado, M; Garcia-Urbina, A; Gamez-Altamirano, T; Basra, K; Laws, RL; ... Scammell, MK; + view all (2019) Prevalence and Risk Factors for CKD Among Brickmaking Workers in La Paz Centro, Nicaragua. American Journal of Kidney Diseases , 74 (2) pp. 239-247. 10.1053/j.ajkd.2019.01.017. Green open access

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Abstract

Rationale & Objective In Central America, there is a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of nontraditional etiology often observed among agricultural workers. Few studies have assessed CKD prevalence among workers in nonagricultural occupations, which was the objective of this investigation. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting & Participants Male and female workers (n = 224) employed by artisanal brickmaking facilities in La Paz Centro, Nicaragua. Predictors Age, sex, education, smoking status, body mass index, alcohol consumption, water consumption, first-degree relative(s) with CKD, years worked, hours worked per week, job category, study visit (baseline and follow-up), and self-reported hypertension and diabetes. Outcomes CKD defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at 2 time points 4 months apart and CKD stage. Analytical Approach A linear mixed-effects model with an unstructured covariance matrix was used to evaluate the association between demographics, occupational risk factors, and eGFR at baseline. The interaction between risk factors and time with change in eGFR was also evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate predictors of CKD. Results The CKD prevalence was 12.1% (n = 27), 100% of cases were male, 30% had stage 5 CKD (eGFR < 15 mL/min/1.73 m2), and 22% were younger than 35 years. Proportions of participants with eGFRs < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at baseline and follow-up were 13.8% and 15.2%, respectively. Linear regression analysis demonstrated significant predictors of lower kidney function at baseline including oven work, older age, lack of education, and having an immediate family member with CKD. Predictors of CKD identified using logistic regression analysis included oven work and lack of education. Limitations Crude job classification measures, loss to follow-up, self-reported exposures. Conclusions The prevalence of CKD is high in this population of brick workers, suggesting that the epidemic of CKD affecting Mesoamerica is not limited to agricultural workers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that occupational heat exposure is a risk factor for kidney disease in this region.

Type: Article
Title: Prevalence and Risk Factors for CKD Among Brickmaking Workers in La Paz Centro, Nicaragua
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2019.01.017
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2019.01.017
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Urology & Nephrology, CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE, GLOMERULAR-FILTRATION-RATE, UNKNOWN ETIOLOGY, CENTRAL-AMERICA, EPIDEMIC, NEPHRITIS, EQUATION, FAILURE
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Renal Medicine
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10087881
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