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Extracellular matrix: a new player in memory maintenance and psychiatric disorders

Bach, D; Brown, SA; Kleim, B; Tyagarajan, S; (2019) Extracellular matrix: a new player in memory maintenance and psychiatric disorders. Swiss Medical Weekly , 149 , Article w20060. 10.4414/smw.2019.20060. Green open access

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Abstract

How the brain performs higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory is traditionally studied by investigating how neurons work. However, over the past two decades, evidence has accumulated which suggests that components of the extracellular matrix contribute to the storing of information through learning processes. Thus, matrix regulation – either changes in the protein composition of the perineural network surrounding neurons or cleavage of this network by specific metalloproteases – could be relevant to the many psychiatric disorders that are shaped by previous experiences, i.e. by learning and plasticity. This includes disorders which are a direct consequence of past experiences and ones where previous experiences constitute a risk factor. Psychotherapy is one of the first-line treatments for most psychiatric conditions, and involves learning and plasticity. Here, we review selected publications pertaining to experience dependence in psychiatric conditions and summarise evidence of roles for the extracellular matrix in learning and memory. We then suggest how control of the extracellular matrix could be leveraged for innovative treatments and, more generally, discuss possible aetiological effects of extracellular matrix alterations in psychiatric disorders.

Type: Article
Title: Extracellular matrix: a new player in memory maintenance and psychiatric disorders
Location: Switzerland
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.4414/smw.2019.20060
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.4414/smw.2019.20060
Language: English
Additional information: © Published under the copyright license Attribution – Non-Commercial – NoDerivatives 4.0. No commercial reuse without permission. See: (emh.ch/en/emh/rights-and-licences/).
Keywords: Psychiatry, anxiety disorders, addiction, extracellular matrix, perineuronal nets, synaptic plasticity, circadian rhythms
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Imaging Neuroscience
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10086342
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