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Optimising clonidine dosage for sedation in mechanically ventilated children: a pharmacokinetic simulation study

Hayden, JC; Bardol, M; Doherty, DR; Dawkins, I; Healy, M; Breatnach, CV; Gallagher, PJ; ... Standing, JF; + view all (2019) Optimising clonidine dosage for sedation in mechanically ventilated children: a pharmacokinetic simulation study. Pediatric Anesthesia , 29 (10) pp. 1002-1010. 10.1111/pan.13715. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Clonidine is in widespread off-label use as a sedative in mechanically ventilated children, despite limited evidence of efficacy. A variety of dosage regimens have been utilised in clinical practice and in research studies. Within these studies, clonidine has inconsistently shown useful sedation properties. One of the reasons attributed to the inconsistent signs of efficacy is suboptimal clonidine dosing. AIM: This study aims to propose a target plasma concentration and simulate clonidine pharmacokinetics (PK) in a cohort of mechanically ventilated children to evaluate the adequacy of clonidine dosage regimens used in clinical practice and research studies. METHOD: A literature search was undertaken to identify a clonidine PKPD model, from which a target concentration for sedation was defined. Using a previously published PK model the projected plasma concentrations of 692 mechanically ventilated children (demographics taken from a recent study) were generated. Doses from recently published clinical studies were investigated. Adequacy of each regimen to attain therapeutic clonidine plasma concentrations was assessed. RESULTS: A target plasma concentration of above 2 μg/L was proposed. Nine dosage regimens (four intravenous boluses, four intravenous infusions and one nasogastric route boluses) were evaluated ranging from 1μg/kg 8 hourly intravenous boluses to a regimen up to 3μg/kg/hr continuous intravenous infusion. Regimens with a loading dose of 2μg/kg followed by variable continuous infusion of up to 2μg/kg/hr titrated according to sedation score appear most suitable. CONCLUSIONS: The variety of dosage regimens in previous studies of clonidine along with difficulties in the conduct of interventional studies may have contributed to the lack of efficacy data to support its use. Simulations of clonidine plasma concentrations based on known population pharmacokinetic parameters suggest a loading dose followed by higher than current practice maintenance dose infusion is required to achieve adequate steady-state concentrations early in treatment. Further PKPD studies will aid in the determination of the optimal clonidine dosage regimen. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Type: Article
Title: Optimising clonidine dosage for sedation in mechanically ventilated children: a pharmacokinetic simulation study
Location: France
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1111/pan.13715
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1111/pan.13715
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Clonidine, adrenergic alpha-agonists, child, computer simulation, conscious sedation, pharmacokinetics
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10080368
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