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Multilocus analysis resolves the European finch epidemic strain of Trichomonas gallinae and suggests introgression from divergent trichomonads

Alrefaei, AF; Low, R; Hall, N; Jardim, R; Davila, A; Gerhold, R; John, S; ... Tyler, K; + view all (2019) Multilocus analysis resolves the European finch epidemic strain of Trichomonas gallinae and suggests introgression from divergent trichomonads. Genome Biology and Evolution , 11 (8) pp. 2391-2402. 10.1093/gbe/evz164. Green open access

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Abstract

In Europe, Trichomonas gallinae recently emerged as a cause of epidemic disease in songbirds. A clonal strain of the parasite, first found in the UK, has become the predominant strain there and spread to continental Europe. Discriminating this epidemic strain of T. gallinae from other strains necessitated development of multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Development of the MLST was facilitated by the assembly and annotation of a 54.7 Mb draft genome of a cloned stabilate of the A1 European finch epidemic strain (isolated from Greenfinch, Chloris chloris, XT-1081/07 in 2007) containing 21,924 protein coding genes. This enabled construction of a robust 19 locus MLST based on existing typing loci for Trichomonas vaginalis and T. gallinae. Our MLST has the sensitivity to discriminate strains within existing genotypes confidently, and resolves the American finch A1 genotype from the epidemic European finch A1 genotype. Interestingly, one isolate we obtained from a captive black-naped fruit dove Ptilinopsus melanospilus, was not truly T. gallinae but a hybrid of T. gallinae with a distant trichomonad lineage. Phylogenetic analysis of the individual loci in this fruit dove provides evidence of gene flow between distant trichomonad lineages at two of the 19 loci examined and may provide precedence for the emergence of other hybrid trichomonad genomes including T. vaginalis.

Type: Article
Title: Multilocus analysis resolves the European finch epidemic strain of Trichomonas gallinae and suggests introgression from divergent trichomonads
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evz164
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evz164
Language: English
Additional information: © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: Trichomonosis, Trichomoniasis, genome, molecular epidemiology, emerging infectious disease, wild bird, MLST, hybrid
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences > Genetics, Evolution and Environment
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10079451
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