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Cross-sectional study of association between socioeconomic indicators and chronic kidney disease in rural-urban Ghana: the RODAM study

Adjei, DN; Stronks, K; Adu, D; Beune, E; Meeks, K; Smeeth, L; Addo, J; ... Agyemang, C; + view all (2019) Cross-sectional study of association between socioeconomic indicators and chronic kidney disease in rural-urban Ghana: the RODAM study. BMJ Open , 9 (5) , Article e022610. 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022610. Green open access

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Studies from high-income countries suggest higher prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among individuals in low socioeconomic groups. However, some studies from low/middle-income countries show the reverse pattern among those in high socioeconomic groups. It is unknown which pattern applies to individuals living in rural and urban Ghana. We assessed the association between socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and CKD in rural and urban Ghana and to what extent the higher SES of people in urban areas of Ghana could account for differences in CKD between rural and urban populations. SETTING: The study was conducted in Ghana (Ashanti region). We used baseline data from a multicentre Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM) study. PARTICIPANTS: The sample consisted of 2492 adults (Rural Ghana, 1043, Urban Ghana, 1449) aged 25-70 years living in Ghana. EXPOSURE: Educational level, occupational level and wealth index. OUTCOME: Three CKD outcomes were considered using the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes severity of CKD classification: albuminuria, reduced glomerular filtration rate and high to very high CKD risk based on the combination of these two. RESULTS: All three SES indicators were not associated with CKD in both rural and urban Ghana after age and sex adjustment except for rural Ghana where high wealth index was significantly associated with higher odds of reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (adjusted OR, 2.38; 95% CI 1.03 to 5.47). The higher rate of CKD observed in urban Ghana was not explained by the higher SES of that population. CONCLUSION: SES indicators were not associated with prevalence of CKD except for wealth index and reduced eGFR in rural Ghana. Consequently, the higher SES of urban Ghana did not account for the increased rate of CKD among urban dwellers suggesting the need to identify other factors that may be driving this.

Type: Article
Title: Cross-sectional study of association between socioeconomic indicators and chronic kidney disease in rural-urban Ghana: the RODAM study
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022610
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022610
Language: English
Additional information: This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to copy, redistribute, remix, transform and build upon this work for any purpose, provided the original work is properly cited, a link to the licence is given, and indication of whether changes were made. See: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Keywords: chronic kidney disease, health inequalities, rodam study, rural, socioeconomic status, urban
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS > SHS Faculty Office
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS > SHS Faculty Office > UCL Institute for Advanced Studies
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10078425
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